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Subject[PATCH 01/10] writeback: move dirty inodes from super_block to backing_dev_info
Date
This is a first step at introducing per-bdi flusher threads. We should
have no change in behaviour, although sb_has_dirty_inodes() is now
ridiculously expensive, as there's no easy way to answer that question.
Not a huge problem, since it'll be deleted in subsequent patches.

Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
---
fs/fs-writeback.c | 196 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------
fs/super.c | 3 -
include/linux/backing-dev.h | 9 ++
include/linux/fs.h | 5 +-
mm/backing-dev.c | 24 +++++
mm/page-writeback.c | 11 +--
6 files changed, 164 insertions(+), 84 deletions(-)
diff --git a/fs/fs-writeback.c b/fs/fs-writeback.c
index caf0491..2d4bb6b 100644
--- a/fs/fs-writeback.c
+++ b/fs/fs-writeback.c
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@
#include <linux/buffer_head.h>
#include "internal.h"

+#define inode_to_bdi(inode) ((inode)->i_mapping->backing_dev_info)

/**
* writeback_acquire - attempt to get exclusive writeback access to a device
@@ -165,12 +166,13 @@ void __mark_inode_dirty(struct inode *inode, int flags)
goto out;

/*
- * If the inode was already on s_dirty/s_io/s_more_io, don't
- * reposition it (that would break s_dirty time-ordering).
+ * If the inode was already on b_dirty/b_io/b_more_io, don't
+ * reposition it (that would break b_dirty time-ordering).
*/
if (!was_dirty) {
inode->dirtied_when = jiffies;
- list_move(&inode->i_list, &sb->s_dirty);
+ list_move(&inode->i_list,
+ &inode_to_bdi(inode)->b_dirty);
}
}
out:
@@ -191,31 +193,30 @@ static int write_inode(struct inode *inode, int sync)
* furthest end of its superblock's dirty-inode list.
*
* Before stamping the inode's ->dirtied_when, we check to see whether it is
- * already the most-recently-dirtied inode on the s_dirty list. If that is
+ * already the most-recently-dirtied inode on the b_dirty list. If that is
* the case then the inode must have been redirtied while it was being written
* out and we don't reset its dirtied_when.
*/
static void redirty_tail(struct inode *inode)
{
- struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
+ struct backing_dev_info *bdi = inode_to_bdi(inode);

- if (!list_empty(&sb->s_dirty)) {
- struct inode *tail_inode;
+ if (!list_empty(&bdi->b_dirty)) {
+ struct inode *tail;

- tail_inode = list_entry(sb->s_dirty.next, struct inode, i_list);
- if (time_before(inode->dirtied_when,
- tail_inode->dirtied_when))
+ tail = list_entry(bdi->b_dirty.next, struct inode, i_list);
+ if (time_before(inode->dirtied_when, tail->dirtied_when))
inode->dirtied_when = jiffies;
}
- list_move(&inode->i_list, &sb->s_dirty);
+ list_move(&inode->i_list, &bdi->b_dirty);
}

/*
- * requeue inode for re-scanning after sb->s_io list is exhausted.
+ * requeue inode for re-scanning after bdi->b_io list is exhausted.
*/
static void requeue_io(struct inode *inode)
{
- list_move(&inode->i_list, &inode->i_sb->s_more_io);
+ list_move(&inode->i_list, &inode_to_bdi(inode)->b_more_io);
}

static void inode_sync_complete(struct inode *inode)
@@ -262,18 +263,50 @@ static void move_expired_inodes(struct list_head *delaying_queue,
/*
* Queue all expired dirty inodes for io, eldest first.
*/
-static void queue_io(struct super_block *sb,
- unsigned long *older_than_this)
+static void queue_io(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+ unsigned long *older_than_this)
+{
+ list_splice_init(&bdi->b_more_io, bdi->b_io.prev);
+ move_expired_inodes(&bdi->b_dirty, &bdi->b_io, older_than_this);
+}
+
+static int sb_on_inode_list(struct super_block *sb, struct list_head *list)
{
- list_splice_init(&sb->s_more_io, sb->s_io.prev);
- move_expired_inodes(&sb->s_dirty, &sb->s_io, older_than_this);
+ struct inode *inode;
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ spin_lock(&inode_lock);
+ list_for_each_entry(inode, list, i_list) {
+ if (inode->i_sb == sb) {
+ ret = 1;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ spin_unlock(&inode_lock);
+ return ret;
}

int sb_has_dirty_inodes(struct super_block *sb)
{
- return !list_empty(&sb->s_dirty) ||
- !list_empty(&sb->s_io) ||
- !list_empty(&sb->s_more_io);
+ struct backing_dev_info *bdi;
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * This is REALLY expensive right now, but it'll go away
+ * when the bdi writeback is introduced
+ */
+ mutex_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ list_for_each_entry(bdi, &bdi_list, bdi_list) {
+ if (sb_on_inode_list(sb, &bdi->b_dirty) ||
+ sb_on_inode_list(sb, &bdi->b_io) ||
+ sb_on_inode_list(sb, &bdi->b_more_io)) {
+ ret = 1;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ mutex_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+
+ return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(sb_has_dirty_inodes);

@@ -327,11 +360,11 @@ __sync_single_inode(struct inode *inode, struct writeback_control *wbc)
/*
* We didn't write back all the pages. nfs_writepages()
* sometimes bales out without doing anything. Redirty
- * the inode; Move it from s_io onto s_more_io/s_dirty.
+ * the inode; Move it from b_io onto b_more_io/b_dirty.
*/
/*
* akpm: if the caller was the kupdate function we put
- * this inode at the head of s_dirty so it gets first
+ * this inode at the head of b_dirty so it gets first
* consideration. Otherwise, move it to the tail, for
* the reasons described there. I'm not really sure
* how much sense this makes. Presumably I had a good
@@ -341,7 +374,7 @@ __sync_single_inode(struct inode *inode, struct writeback_control *wbc)
if (wbc->for_kupdate) {
/*
* For the kupdate function we move the inode
- * to s_more_io so it will get more writeout as
+ * to b_more_io so it will get more writeout as
* soon as the queue becomes uncongested.
*/
inode->i_state |= I_DIRTY_PAGES;
@@ -407,10 +440,10 @@ __writeback_single_inode(struct inode *inode, struct writeback_control *wbc)
if ((wbc->sync_mode != WB_SYNC_ALL) && (inode->i_state & I_SYNC)) {
/*
* We're skipping this inode because it's locked, and we're not
- * doing writeback-for-data-integrity. Move it to s_more_io so
- * that writeback can proceed with the other inodes on s_io.
+ * doing writeback-for-data-integrity. Move it to b_more_io so
+ * that writeback can proceed with the other inodes on b_io.
* We'll have another go at writing back this inode when we
- * completed a full scan of s_io.
+ * completed a full scan of b_io.
*/
requeue_io(inode);
return 0;
@@ -433,51 +466,34 @@ __writeback_single_inode(struct inode *inode, struct writeback_control *wbc)
return __sync_single_inode(inode, wbc);
}

-/*
- * Write out a superblock's list of dirty inodes. A wait will be performed
- * upon no inodes, all inodes or the final one, depending upon sync_mode.
- *
- * If older_than_this is non-NULL, then only write out inodes which
- * had their first dirtying at a time earlier than *older_than_this.
- *
- * If we're a pdflush thread, then implement pdflush collision avoidance
- * against the entire list.
- *
- * If `bdi' is non-zero then we're being asked to writeback a specific queue.
- * This function assumes that the blockdev superblock's inodes are backed by
- * a variety of queues, so all inodes are searched. For other superblocks,
- * assume that all inodes are backed by the same queue.
- *
- * FIXME: this linear search could get expensive with many fileystems. But
- * how to fix? We need to go from an address_space to all inodes which share
- * a queue with that address_space. (Easy: have a global "dirty superblocks"
- * list).
- *
- * The inodes to be written are parked on sb->s_io. They are moved back onto
- * sb->s_dirty as they are selected for writing. This way, none can be missed
- * on the writer throttling path, and we get decent balancing between many
- * throttled threads: we don't want them all piling up on inode_sync_wait.
- */
-void generic_sync_sb_inodes(struct super_block *sb,
- struct writeback_control *wbc)
+static void generic_sync_bdi_inodes(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+ struct writeback_control *wbc,
+ struct super_block *sb,
+ int is_blkdev_sb)
{
const unsigned long start = jiffies; /* livelock avoidance */
- int sync = wbc->sync_mode == WB_SYNC_ALL;

spin_lock(&inode_lock);
- if (!wbc->for_kupdate || list_empty(&sb->s_io))
- queue_io(sb, wbc->older_than_this);

- while (!list_empty(&sb->s_io)) {
- struct inode *inode = list_entry(sb->s_io.prev,
+ if (!wbc->for_kupdate || list_empty(&bdi->b_io))
+ queue_io(bdi, wbc->older_than_this);
+
+ while (!list_empty(&bdi->b_io)) {
+ struct inode *inode = list_entry(bdi->b_io.prev,
struct inode, i_list);
- struct address_space *mapping = inode->i_mapping;
- struct backing_dev_info *bdi = mapping->backing_dev_info;
long pages_skipped;

+ /*
+ * super block given and doesn't match, skip this inode
+ */
+ if (sb && sb != inode->i_sb) {
+ redirty_tail(inode);
+ continue;
+ }
+
if (!bdi_cap_writeback_dirty(bdi)) {
redirty_tail(inode);
- if (sb_is_blkdev_sb(sb)) {
+ if (is_blkdev_sb) {
/*
* Dirty memory-backed blockdev: the ramdisk
* driver does this. Skip just this inode
@@ -499,14 +515,14 @@ void generic_sync_sb_inodes(struct super_block *sb,

if (wbc->nonblocking && bdi_write_congested(bdi)) {
wbc->encountered_congestion = 1;
- if (!sb_is_blkdev_sb(sb))
+ if (!is_blkdev_sb)
break; /* Skip a congested fs */
requeue_io(inode);
continue; /* Skip a congested blockdev */
}

if (wbc->bdi && bdi != wbc->bdi) {
- if (!sb_is_blkdev_sb(sb))
+ if (!is_blkdev_sb)
break; /* fs has the wrong queue */
requeue_io(inode);
continue; /* blockdev has wrong queue */
@@ -544,13 +560,55 @@ void generic_sync_sb_inodes(struct super_block *sb,
wbc->more_io = 1;
break;
}
- if (!list_empty(&sb->s_more_io))
+ if (!list_empty(&bdi->b_more_io))
wbc->more_io = 1;
}

- if (sync) {
+ spin_unlock(&inode_lock);
+ /* Leave any unwritten inodes on b_io */
+}
+
+/*
+ * Write out a superblock's list of dirty inodes. A wait will be performed
+ * upon no inodes, all inodes or the final one, depending upon sync_mode.
+ *
+ * If older_than_this is non-NULL, then only write out inodes which
+ * had their first dirtying at a time earlier than *older_than_this.
+ *
+ * If we're a pdlfush thread, then implement pdflush collision avoidance
+ * against the entire list.
+ *
+ * If `bdi' is non-zero then we're being asked to writeback a specific queue.
+ * This function assumes that the blockdev superblock's inodes are backed by
+ * a variety of queues, so all inodes are searched. For other superblocks,
+ * assume that all inodes are backed by the same queue.
+ *
+ * FIXME: this linear search could get expensive with many fileystems. But
+ * how to fix? We need to go from an address_space to all inodes which share
+ * a queue with that address_space. (Easy: have a global "dirty superblocks"
+ * list).
+ *
+ * The inodes to be written are parked on bdi->b_io. They are moved back onto
+ * bdi->b_dirty as they are selected for writing. This way, none can be missed
+ * on the writer throttling path, and we get decent balancing between many
+ * throttled threads: we don't want them all piling up on inode_sync_wait.
+ */
+void generic_sync_sb_inodes(struct super_block *sb,
+ struct writeback_control *wbc)
+{
+ const int is_blkdev_sb = sb_is_blkdev_sb(sb);
+ struct backing_dev_info *bdi;
+
+ mutex_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ list_for_each_entry(bdi, &bdi_list, bdi_list)
+ generic_sync_bdi_inodes(bdi, wbc, sb, is_blkdev_sb);
+ mutex_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+
+ if (wbc->sync_mode == WB_SYNC_ALL) {
struct inode *inode, *old_inode = NULL;

+ spin_lock(&inode_lock);
+
/*
* Data integrity sync. Must wait for all pages under writeback,
* because there may have been pages dirtied before our sync
@@ -588,10 +646,8 @@ void generic_sync_sb_inodes(struct super_block *sb,
}
spin_unlock(&inode_lock);
iput(old_inode);
- } else
- spin_unlock(&inode_lock);
+ }

- return; /* Leave any unwritten inodes on s_io */
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(generic_sync_sb_inodes);

@@ -606,8 +662,8 @@ static void sync_sb_inodes(struct super_block *sb,
*
* Note:
* We don't need to grab a reference to superblock here. If it has non-empty
- * ->s_dirty it's hadn't been killed yet and kill_super() won't proceed
- * past sync_inodes_sb() until the ->s_dirty/s_io/s_more_io lists are all
+ * ->b_dirty it's hadn't been killed yet and kill_super() won't proceed
+ * past sync_inodes_sb() until the ->b_dirty/b_io/b_more_io lists are all
* empty. Since __sync_single_inode() regains inode_lock before it finally moves
* inode from superblock lists we are OK.
*
diff --git a/fs/super.c b/fs/super.c
index 83b4741..417c418 100644
--- a/fs/super.c
+++ b/fs/super.c
@@ -62,9 +62,6 @@ static struct super_block *alloc_super(struct file_system_type *type)
s = NULL;
goto out;
}
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_dirty);
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_io);
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_more_io);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_files);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_instances);
INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&s->s_anon);
diff --git a/include/linux/backing-dev.h b/include/linux/backing-dev.h
index 0ec2c59..8719c87 100644
--- a/include/linux/backing-dev.h
+++ b/include/linux/backing-dev.h
@@ -40,6 +40,8 @@ enum bdi_stat_item {
#define BDI_STAT_BATCH (8*(1+ilog2(nr_cpu_ids)))

struct backing_dev_info {
+ struct list_head bdi_list;
+
unsigned long ra_pages; /* max readahead in PAGE_CACHE_SIZE units */
unsigned long state; /* Always use atomic bitops on this */
unsigned int capabilities; /* Device capabilities */
@@ -58,6 +60,10 @@ struct backing_dev_info {

struct device *dev;

+ struct list_head b_dirty; /* dirty inodes */
+ struct list_head b_io; /* parked for writeback */
+ struct list_head b_more_io; /* parked for more writeback */
+
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
struct dentry *debug_dir;
struct dentry *debug_stats;
@@ -72,6 +78,9 @@ int bdi_register(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, struct device *parent,
int bdi_register_dev(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, dev_t dev);
void bdi_unregister(struct backing_dev_info *bdi);

+extern struct mutex bdi_lock;
+extern struct list_head bdi_list;
+
static inline void __add_bdi_stat(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
enum bdi_stat_item item, s64 amount)
{
diff --git a/include/linux/fs.h b/include/linux/fs.h
index 74a5793..2a486ca 100644
--- a/include/linux/fs.h
+++ b/include/linux/fs.h
@@ -712,7 +712,7 @@ static inline int mapping_writably_mapped(struct address_space *mapping)

struct inode {
struct hlist_node i_hash;
- struct list_head i_list;
+ struct list_head i_list; /* backing dev IO list */
struct list_head i_sb_list;
struct list_head i_dentry;
unsigned long i_ino;
@@ -1328,9 +1328,6 @@ struct super_block {
struct xattr_handler **s_xattr;

struct list_head s_inodes; /* all inodes */
- struct list_head s_dirty; /* dirty inodes */
- struct list_head s_io; /* parked for writeback */
- struct list_head s_more_io; /* parked for more writeback */
struct hlist_head s_anon; /* anonymous dentries for (nfs) exporting */
struct list_head s_files;
/* s_dentry_lru and s_nr_dentry_unused are protected by dcache_lock */
diff --git a/mm/backing-dev.c b/mm/backing-dev.c
index 493b468..de0bbfe 100644
--- a/mm/backing-dev.c
+++ b/mm/backing-dev.c
@@ -22,6 +22,8 @@ struct backing_dev_info default_backing_dev_info = {
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(default_backing_dev_info);

static struct class *bdi_class;
+DEFINE_MUTEX(bdi_lock);
+LIST_HEAD(bdi_list);

#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
#include <linux/debugfs.h>
@@ -211,6 +213,10 @@ int bdi_register(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, struct device *parent,
goto exit;
}

+ mutex_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ list_add_tail(&bdi->bdi_list, &bdi_list);
+ mutex_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+
bdi->dev = dev;
bdi_debug_register(bdi, dev_name(dev));

@@ -225,9 +231,17 @@ int bdi_register_dev(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, dev_t dev)
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_register_dev);

+static void bdi_remove_from_list(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
+{
+ mutex_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ list_del(&bdi->bdi_list);
+ mutex_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+}
+
void bdi_unregister(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
{
if (bdi->dev) {
+ bdi_remove_from_list(bdi);
bdi_debug_unregister(bdi);
device_unregister(bdi->dev);
bdi->dev = NULL;
@@ -245,6 +259,10 @@ int bdi_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
bdi->min_ratio = 0;
bdi->max_ratio = 100;
bdi->max_prop_frac = PROP_FRAC_BASE;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->bdi_list);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->b_io);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->b_dirty);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->b_more_io);

for (i = 0; i < NR_BDI_STAT_ITEMS; i++) {
err = percpu_counter_init(&bdi->bdi_stat[i], 0);
@@ -259,6 +277,8 @@ int bdi_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
err:
while (i--)
percpu_counter_destroy(&bdi->bdi_stat[i]);
+
+ bdi_remove_from_list(bdi);
}

return err;
@@ -269,6 +289,10 @@ void bdi_destroy(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
{
int i;

+ WARN_ON(!list_empty(&bdi->b_dirty));
+ WARN_ON(!list_empty(&bdi->b_io));
+ WARN_ON(!list_empty(&bdi->b_more_io));
+
bdi_unregister(bdi);

for (i = 0; i < NR_BDI_STAT_ITEMS; i++)
diff --git a/mm/page-writeback.c b/mm/page-writeback.c
index 7b0dcea..d6a1b33 100644
--- a/mm/page-writeback.c
+++ b/mm/page-writeback.c
@@ -320,15 +320,13 @@ static void task_dirty_limit(struct task_struct *tsk, unsigned long *pdirty)
/*
*
*/
-static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(bdi_lock);
static unsigned int bdi_min_ratio;

int bdi_set_min_ratio(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, unsigned int min_ratio)
{
int ret = 0;
- unsigned long flags;

- spin_lock_irqsave(&bdi_lock, flags);
+ mutex_lock(&bdi_lock);
if (min_ratio > bdi->max_ratio) {
ret = -EINVAL;
} else {
@@ -340,27 +338,26 @@ int bdi_set_min_ratio(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, unsigned int min_ratio)
ret = -EINVAL;
}
}
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bdi_lock, flags);
+ mutex_unlock(&bdi_lock);

return ret;
}

int bdi_set_max_ratio(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, unsigned max_ratio)
{
- unsigned long flags;
int ret = 0;

if (max_ratio > 100)
return -EINVAL;

- spin_lock_irqsave(&bdi_lock, flags);
+ mutex_lock(&bdi_lock);
if (bdi->min_ratio > max_ratio) {
ret = -EINVAL;
} else {
bdi->max_ratio = max_ratio;
bdi->max_prop_frac = (PROP_FRAC_BASE * max_ratio) / 100;
}
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&bdi_lock, flags);
+ mutex_unlock(&bdi_lock);

return ret;
}
--
1.6.3.rc0.1.gf800


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