lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2009]   [Jun]   [15]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
Patch in this message
/
Date
From
SubjectRe: [tip:perfcounters/core] perf_counter: x86: Fix call-chain support to use NMI-safe methods

* Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> wrote:

> On Mon, 15 Jun 2009, Mathieu Desnoyers wrote:
> >
> > Hrm, would it be possible to save the c2 register upon nmi
> > handler entry and restore it before iret instead ?
>
> Yes, that would work as well, and be less subtle.
>
> It still does have the same worries about CPU's not being all that
> happy about writing to %cr2 (we do it when restoring CPU state at
> resume time, but nobody has ever _cared_ before, so I don't know
> if it matters).

I think we can dodge the whole issue by asking whether the old
1-year-old patch from Mathieu (repeated below - partially ported and
barely tested / not signed off) is an actual speedup in the normal
exception codepaths.

The gist of it is the replacement of iret with this open-coded
sequence:

+#define NATIVE_INTERRUPT_RETURN_NMI_SAFE pushq %rax; \
+ movq %rsp, %rax; \
+ movq 24+8(%rax), %rsp; \
+ pushq 0+8(%rax); \
+ pushq 16+8(%rax); \
+ movq (%rax), %rax; \
+ popfq; \
+ ret

Whether popfq+ret is faster than iret is the question i think.
(beyond the question of 'how about all the weird stack exceptions
that are possible above')

If it's faster, this becomes a legit (albeit complex)
micro-optimization in a _very_ hot codepath.

If it's slower then it's a non-starter and we do the GUP solution.

Lets hope it's slower ;-)

Ingo

----------->
Subject: x86 NMI-safe INT3 and Page Fault
From: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca>
Date: Mon, 12 May 2008 21:21:07 +0200
Implements an alternative iret with popf and return so trap and exception
handlers can return to the NMI handler without issuing iret. iret would cause
NMIs to be reenabled prematurely. x86_32 uses popf and far return. x86_64 has to
copy the return instruction pointer to the top of the previous stack, issue a
popf, loads the previous esp and issue a near return (ret).

It allows placing immediate values (and therefore optimized trace_marks) in NMI
code since returning from a breakpoint would be valid. Accessing vmalloc'd
memory, which allows executing module code or accessing vmapped or vmalloc'd
areas from NMI context, would also be valid. This is very useful to tracers like
LTTng.

This patch makes all faults, traps and exception safe to be called from NMI
context *except* single-stepping, which requires iret to restore the TF (trap
flag) and jump to the return address in a single instruction. Sorry, no kprobes
support in NMI handlers because of this limitation. We cannot single-step an
NMI handler, because iret must set the TF flag and return back to the
instruction to single-step in a single instruction. This cannot be emulated with
popf/lret, because lret would be single-stepped. It does not apply to immediate
values because they do not use single-stepping. This code detects if the TF
flag is set and uses the iret path for single-stepping, even if it reactivates
NMIs prematurely.

Test to detect if nested under a NMI handler is only done upon the return from
trap/exception to kernel, which is not frequent. Other return paths (return from
trap/exception to userspace, return from interrupt) keep the exact same behavior
(no slowdown).

Depends on :
change-alpha-active-count-bit.patch
change-avr32-active-count-bit.patch

TODO : test with lguest, xen, kvm.

** This patch depends on the "Stringify support commas" patchset **
** Also depends on fix-x86_64-page-fault-scheduler-race patch **

tested on x86_32 (tests implemented in a separate patch) :
- instrumented the return path to export the EIP, CS and EFLAGS values when
taken so we know the return path code has been executed.
- trace_mark, using immediate values, with 10ms delay with the breakpoint
activated. Runs well through the return path.
- tested vmalloc faults in NMI handler by placing a non-optimized marker in the
NMI handler (so no breakpoint is executed) and connecting a probe which
touches every pages of a 20MB vmalloc'd buffer. It executes trough the return
path without problem.
- Tested with and without preemption

tested on x86_64
- instrumented the return path to export the EIP, CS and EFLAGS values when
taken so we know the return path code has been executed.
- trace_mark, using immediate values, with 10ms delay with the breakpoint
activated. Runs well through the return path.

To test on x86_64 :
- Test without preemption
- Test vmalloc faults
- Test on Intel 64 bits CPUs. (AMD64 was fine)

Changelog since v1 :
- x86_64 fixes.
Changelog since v2 :
- fix paravirt build
Changelog since v3 :
- Include modifications suggested by Jeremy
Changelog since v4 :
- including hardirq.h in entry_32/64.S is a bad idea (non ifndef'd C code),
define HARDNMI_MASK in the .S files directly.
Changelog since v5 :
- Add HARDNMI_MASK to irq_count() and make die() more verbose for NMIs.
Changelog since v7 :
- Implement paravirtualized nmi_return.
Changelog since v8 :
- refreshed the patch for asm-offsets. Those were left out of v8.
- now depends on "Stringify support commas" patch.
Changelog since v9 :
- Only test the nmi nested preempt count flag upon return from exceptions, not
on return from interrupts. Only the kernel return path has this test.
- Add Xen, VMI, lguest support. Use their iret pavavirt ops in lieu of
nmi_return.

-- Ported to sched-devel.git

---
arch/x86/include/asm/irqflags.h | 56 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c | 2 +
arch/x86/kernel/entry_64.S | 57 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------
include/linux/hardirq.h | 16 +++++++----
Index: linux/arch/x86/include/asm/irqflags.h
===================================================================
--- linux.orig/arch/x86/include/asm/irqflags.h
+++ linux/arch/x86/include/asm/irqflags.h
@@ -51,6 +51,61 @@ static inline void native_halt(void)

#endif

+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
+/*
+ * Only returns from a trap or exception to a NMI context (intra-privilege
+ * level near return) to the same SS and CS segments. Should be used
+ * upon trap or exception return when nested over a NMI context so no iret is
+ * issued. It takes care of modifying the eflags, rsp and returning to the
+ * previous function.
+ *
+ * The stack, at that point, looks like :
+ *
+ * 0(rsp) RIP
+ * 8(rsp) CS
+ * 16(rsp) EFLAGS
+ * 24(rsp) RSP
+ * 32(rsp) SS
+ *
+ * Upon execution :
+ * Copy EIP to the top of the return stack
+ * Update top of return stack address
+ * Pop eflags into the eflags register
+ * Make the return stack current
+ * Near return (popping the return address from the return stack)
+ */
+#define NATIVE_INTERRUPT_RETURN_NMI_SAFE pushq %rax; \
+ movq %rsp, %rax; \
+ movq 24+8(%rax), %rsp; \
+ pushq 0+8(%rax); \
+ pushq 16+8(%rax); \
+ movq (%rax), %rax; \
+ popfq; \
+ ret
+#else
+/*
+ * Protected mode only, no V8086. Implies that protected mode must
+ * be entered before NMIs or MCEs are enabled. Only returns from a trap or
+ * exception to a NMI context (intra-privilege level far return). Should be used
+ * upon trap or exception return when nested over a NMI context so no iret is
+ * issued.
+ *
+ * The stack, at that point, looks like :
+ *
+ * 0(esp) EIP
+ * 4(esp) CS
+ * 8(esp) EFLAGS
+ *
+ * Upon execution :
+ * Copy the stack eflags to top of stack
+ * Pop eflags into the eflags register
+ * Far return: pop EIP and CS into their register, and additionally pop EFLAGS.
+ */
+#define NATIVE_INTERRUPT_RETURN_NMI_SAFE pushl 8(%esp); \
+ popfl; \
+ lret $4
+#endif
+
#ifdef CONFIG_PARAVIRT
#include <asm/paravirt.h>
#else
@@ -109,6 +164,7 @@ static inline unsigned long __raw_local_

#define ENABLE_INTERRUPTS(x) sti
#define DISABLE_INTERRUPTS(x) cli
+#define INTERRUPT_RETURN_NMI_SAFE NATIVE_INTERRUPT_RETURN_NMI_SAFE

#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
#define SWAPGS swapgs
Index: linux/arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c
===================================================================
--- linux.orig/arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c
+++ linux/arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c
@@ -237,6 +237,8 @@ void __kprobes oops_end(unsigned long fl

if (!signr)
return;
+ if (in_nmi())
+ panic("Fatal exception in non-maskable interrupt");
if (in_interrupt())
panic("Fatal exception in interrupt");
if (panic_on_oops)
Index: linux/arch/x86/kernel/entry_64.S
===================================================================
--- linux.orig/arch/x86/kernel/entry_64.S
+++ linux/arch/x86/kernel/entry_64.S
@@ -53,6 +53,7 @@
#include <asm/paravirt.h>
#include <asm/ftrace.h>
#include <asm/percpu.h>
+#include <linux/hardirq.h>

/* Avoid __ASSEMBLER__'ifying <linux/audit.h> just for this. */
#include <linux/elf-em.h>
@@ -875,6 +876,9 @@ ENTRY(native_iret)
.section __ex_table,"a"
.quad native_iret, bad_iret
.previous
+
+ENTRY(native_nmi_return)
+ NATIVE_INTERRUPT_RETURN_NMI_SAFE
#endif

.section .fixup,"ax"
@@ -929,6 +933,23 @@ retint_signal:
GET_THREAD_INFO(%rcx)
jmp retint_with_reschedule

+ /* Returning to kernel space from exception. */
+ /* rcx: threadinfo. interrupts off. */
+ENTRY(retexc_kernel)
+ testl $NMI_MASK, TI_preempt_count(%rcx)
+ jz retint_kernel /* Not nested over NMI ? */
+ testw $X86_EFLAGS_TF, EFLAGS-ARGOFFSET(%rsp) /* trap flag? */
+ jnz retint_kernel /*
+ * If single-stepping an NMI handler,
+ * use the normal iret path instead of
+ * the popf/lret because lret would be
+ * single-stepped. It should not
+ * happen : it will reactivate NMIs
+ * prematurely.
+ */
+ RESTORE_ARGS 0, 8, 0
+ INTERRUPT_RETURN_NMI_SAFE
+
#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT
/* Returning to kernel space. Check if we need preemption */
/* rcx: threadinfo. interrupts off. */
@@ -1407,34 +1428,46 @@ ENTRY(paranoid_exit)
INTR_FRAME
DISABLE_INTERRUPTS(CLBR_NONE)
TRACE_IRQS_OFF
- testl %ebx,%ebx /* swapgs needed? */
+ testl %ebx, %ebx /* swapgs needed? */
jnz paranoid_restore
- testl $3,CS(%rsp)
+
+ testl $3, CS(%rsp)
jnz paranoid_userspace
+
paranoid_swapgs:
TRACE_IRQS_IRETQ 0
SWAPGS_UNSAFE_STACK
RESTORE_ALL 8
jmp irq_return
-paranoid_restore:
+paranoid_restore_no_nmi:
TRACE_IRQS_IRETQ 0
RESTORE_ALL 8
jmp irq_return
+paranoid_restore:
+ GET_THREAD_INFO(%rcx)
+ testl $NMI_MASK, TI_preempt_count(%rcx)
+ jz paranoid_restore_no_nmi /* Nested over NMI ? */
+
+ testw $X86_EFLAGS_TF, EFLAGS-0(%rsp) /* trap flag? */
+ jnz paranoid_restore_no_nmi
+ RESTORE_ALL 8
+ INTERRUPT_RETURN_NMI_SAFE
+
paranoid_userspace:
GET_THREAD_INFO(%rcx)
- movl TI_flags(%rcx),%ebx
- andl $_TIF_WORK_MASK,%ebx
+ movl TI_flags(%rcx), %ebx
+ andl $_TIF_WORK_MASK, %ebx
jz paranoid_swapgs
- movq %rsp,%rdi /* &pt_regs */
+ movq %rsp, %rdi /* &pt_regs */
call sync_regs
- movq %rax,%rsp /* switch stack for scheduling */
- testl $_TIF_NEED_RESCHED,%ebx
+ movq %rax, %rsp /* switch stack for scheduling */
+ testl $_TIF_NEED_RESCHED, %ebx
jnz paranoid_schedule
- movl %ebx,%edx /* arg3: thread flags */
+ movl %ebx, %edx /* arg3: thread flags */
TRACE_IRQS_ON
ENABLE_INTERRUPTS(CLBR_NONE)
- xorl %esi,%esi /* arg2: oldset */
- movq %rsp,%rdi /* arg1: &pt_regs */
+ xorl %esi, %esi /* arg2: oldset */
+ movq %rsp, %rdi /* arg1: &pt_regs */
call do_notify_resume
DISABLE_INTERRUPTS(CLBR_NONE)
TRACE_IRQS_OFF
@@ -1513,7 +1546,7 @@ ENTRY(error_exit)
TRACE_IRQS_OFF
GET_THREAD_INFO(%rcx)
testl %eax,%eax
- jne retint_kernel
+ jne retexc_kernel
LOCKDEP_SYS_EXIT_IRQ
movl TI_flags(%rcx),%edx
movl $_TIF_WORK_MASK,%edi
Index: linux/include/linux/hardirq.h
===================================================================
--- linux.orig/include/linux/hardirq.h
+++ linux/include/linux/hardirq.h
@@ -1,12 +1,14 @@
#ifndef LINUX_HARDIRQ_H
#define LINUX_HARDIRQ_H

+#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
#include <linux/preempt.h>
#include <linux/smp_lock.h>
#include <linux/lockdep.h>
#include <linux/ftrace_irq.h>
#include <asm/hardirq.h>
#include <asm/system.h>
+#endif

/*
* We put the hardirq and softirq counter into the preemption
@@ -50,17 +52,17 @@
#define HARDIRQ_SHIFT (SOFTIRQ_SHIFT + SOFTIRQ_BITS)
#define NMI_SHIFT (HARDIRQ_SHIFT + HARDIRQ_BITS)

-#define __IRQ_MASK(x) ((1UL << (x))-1)
+#define __IRQ_MASK(x) ((1 << (x))-1)

#define PREEMPT_MASK (__IRQ_MASK(PREEMPT_BITS) << PREEMPT_SHIFT)
#define SOFTIRQ_MASK (__IRQ_MASK(SOFTIRQ_BITS) << SOFTIRQ_SHIFT)
#define HARDIRQ_MASK (__IRQ_MASK(HARDIRQ_BITS) << HARDIRQ_SHIFT)
#define NMI_MASK (__IRQ_MASK(NMI_BITS) << NMI_SHIFT)

-#define PREEMPT_OFFSET (1UL << PREEMPT_SHIFT)
-#define SOFTIRQ_OFFSET (1UL << SOFTIRQ_SHIFT)
-#define HARDIRQ_OFFSET (1UL << HARDIRQ_SHIFT)
-#define NMI_OFFSET (1UL << NMI_SHIFT)
+#define PREEMPT_OFFSET (1 << PREEMPT_SHIFT)
+#define SOFTIRQ_OFFSET (1 << SOFTIRQ_SHIFT)
+#define HARDIRQ_OFFSET (1 << HARDIRQ_SHIFT)
+#define NMI_OFFSET (1 << NMI_SHIFT)

#if PREEMPT_ACTIVE < (1 << (NMI_SHIFT + NMI_BITS))
#error PREEMPT_ACTIVE is too low!
@@ -116,6 +118,8 @@
# define IRQ_EXIT_OFFSET HARDIRQ_OFFSET
#endif

+#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
+
#if defined(CONFIG_SMP) || defined(CONFIG_GENERIC_HARDIRQS)
extern void synchronize_irq(unsigned int irq);
#else
@@ -195,4 +199,6 @@ extern void irq_exit(void);
ftrace_nmi_exit(); \
} while (0)

+#endif /* !__ASSEMBLY__ */
+
#endif /* LINUX_HARDIRQ_H */


\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2009-06-15 20:39    [W:0.390 / U:0.040 seconds]
©2003-2011 Jasper Spaans. Advertise on this site