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Subject[RFC PATCH 2 1/2] sched: Nominate idle load balancer from a semi-idle package.
Date
Currently the nomination of idle-load balancer is done by choosing the first
idle cpu in the nohz.cpu_mask. This may not be power-efficient, since
such an idle cpu could come from a completely idle core/package thereby
preventing the whole core/package from being in a low-power state.

For eg, consider a quad-core dual package system. The cpu numbering need
not be sequential and can something like [0, 2, 4, 6] and [1, 3, 5, 7].
With sched_mc/smt_power_savings and the power-aware IRQ balance, we try to keep
as fewer Packages/Cores active. But the current idle load balancer logic
goes against this by choosing the first_cpu in the nohz.cpu_mask and not
taking the system topology into consideration.

Improve the algorithm to nominate the idle load balancer from a semi idle
cores/packages thereby increasing the probability of the cores/packages being
in deeper sleep states for longer duration.

The algorithm is activated only when sched_mc/smt_power_savings != 0.

Signed-off-by: Gautham R Shenoy <ego@in.ibm.com>
---
kernel/sched.c | 127 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
1 files changed, 118 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
diff --git a/kernel/sched.c b/kernel/sched.c
index 6cc1fd5..d702be7 100644
--- a/kernel/sched.c
+++ b/kernel/sched.c
@@ -4228,10 +4228,126 @@ static void active_load_balance(struct rq *busiest_rq, int busiest_cpu)
static struct {
atomic_t load_balancer;
cpumask_var_t cpu_mask;
+ cpumask_var_t ilb_grp_nohz_mask;
} nohz ____cacheline_aligned = {
.load_balancer = ATOMIC_INIT(-1),
};

+#if defined(CONFIG_SCHED_MC) || defined(CONFIG_SCHED_SMT)
+/**
+ * lowest_flag_domain - Return lowest sched_domain containing flag.
+ * @cpu: The cpu whose lowest level of sched domain is to
+ * be returned.
+ * @flag: The flag to check for the lowest sched_domain
+ * for the given cpu.
+ *
+ * Returns the lowest sched_domain of a cpu which contains the given flag.
+ */
+static inline struct sched_domain *lowest_flag_domain(int cpu, int flag)
+{
+ struct sched_domain *sd;
+
+ for_each_domain(cpu, sd)
+ if (sd && (sd->flags & flag))
+ break;
+
+ return sd;
+}
+
+/**
+ * for_each_flag_domain - Iterates over sched_domains containing the flag.
+ * @cpu: The cpu whose domains we're iterating over.
+ * @sd: variable holding the value of the power_savings_sd
+ * for cpu.
+ * @flag: The flag to filter the sched_domains to be iterated.
+ *
+ * Iterates over all the scheduler domains for a given cpu that has the 'flag'
+ * set, starting from the lowest sched_domain to the highest.
+ */
+#define for_each_flag_domain(cpu, sd, flag) \
+ for (sd = lowest_flag_domain(cpu, flag); \
+ (sd && (sd->flags & flag)); sd = sd->parent)
+
+/**
+ * is_semi_idle_group - Checks if the given sched_group is semi-idle.
+ * @ilb_group: group to be checked for semi-idleness
+ *
+ * Returns: 1 if the group is semi-idle. 0 otherwise.
+ *
+ * We define a sched_group to be semi idle if it has atleast one idle-CPU
+ * and atleast one non-idle CPU. This helper function checks if the given
+ * sched_group is semi-idle or not.
+ */
+static inline int is_semi_idle_group(struct sched_group *ilb_group)
+{
+ cpumask_and(nohz.ilb_grp_nohz_mask, nohz.cpu_mask,
+ sched_group_cpus(ilb_group));
+
+ /*
+ * A sched_group is semi-idle when it has atleast one busy cpu
+ * and atleast one idle cpu.
+ */
+ if (cpumask_empty(nohz.ilb_grp_nohz_mask))
+ return 0;
+
+ if (cpumask_equal(nohz.ilb_grp_nohz_mask, sched_group_cpus(ilb_group)))
+ return 0;
+
+ return 1;
+}
+/**
+ * find_new_ilb - Finds the optimum idle load balancer for nomination.
+ * @cpu: The cpu which is nominating a new idle_load_balancer.
+ *
+ * Returns: Returns the id of the idle load balancer if it exists,
+ * Else, returns >= nr_cpu_ids.
+ *
+ * This algorithm picks the idle load balancer such that it belongs to a
+ * semi-idle powersavings sched_domain. The idea is to try and avoid
+ * completely idle packages/cores just for the purpose of idle load balancing
+ * when there are other idle cpu's which are better suited for that job.
+ */
+static int find_new_ilb(int cpu)
+{
+ struct sched_domain *sd;
+ struct sched_group *ilb_group;
+
+ /*
+ * Have idle load balancer selection from semi-idle packages only
+ * when power-aware load balancing is enabled
+ */
+ if (!(sched_smt_power_savings || sched_mc_power_savings))
+ goto out_done;
+
+ /*
+ * Optimize for the case when we have no idle CPUs or only one
+ * idle CPU. Don't walk the sched_domain hierarchy in such cases
+ */
+ if (cpumask_weight(nohz.cpu_mask) < 2)
+ goto out_done;
+
+ for_each_flag_domain(cpu, sd, SD_POWERSAVINGS_BALANCE) {
+ ilb_group = sd->groups;
+
+ do {
+ if (is_semi_idle_group(ilb_group))
+ return cpumask_first(nohz.ilb_grp_nohz_mask);
+
+ ilb_group = ilb_group->next;
+
+ } while (ilb_group != sd->groups);
+ }
+
+out_done:
+ return cpumask_first(nohz.cpu_mask);
+}
+#else /* (CONFIG_SCHED_MC || CONFIG_SCHED_SMT) */
+static inline int find_new_ilb(int call_cpu)
+{
+ return first_cpu(nohz.cpu_mask);
+}
+#endif
+
/*
* This routine will try to nominate the ilb (idle load balancing)
* owner among the cpus whose ticks are stopped. ilb owner will do the idle
@@ -4456,15 +4572,7 @@ static inline void trigger_load_balance(struct rq *rq, int cpu)
}

if (atomic_read(&nohz.load_balancer) == -1) {
- /*
- * simple selection for now: Nominate the
- * first cpu in the nohz list to be the next
- * ilb owner.
- *
- * TBD: Traverse the sched domains and nominate
- * the nearest cpu in the nohz.cpu_mask.
- */
- int ilb = cpumask_first(nohz.cpu_mask);
+ int ilb = find_new_ilb(cpu);

if (ilb < nr_cpu_ids)
resched_cpu(ilb);
@@ -8985,6 +9093,7 @@ void __init sched_init(void)
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
#ifdef CONFIG_NO_HZ
alloc_bootmem_cpumask_var(&nohz.cpu_mask);
+ alloc_bootmem_cpumask_var(&nohz.ilb_grp_nohz_mask);
#endif
alloc_bootmem_cpumask_var(&cpu_isolated_map);
#endif /* SMP */


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