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    Subject[patch 1/6] Guest page hinting: core + volatile page cache.
    From: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
    From: Hubertus Franke <frankeh@watson.ibm.com>
    From: Himanshu Raj

    The guest page hinting patchset introduces code that passes guest
    page usage information to the host system that virtualizes the
    memory of its guests. There are three different page states:
    * Unused: The page content is of no interest to the guest. The
    host can forget the page content and replace it with a page
    containing zeroes.
    * Stable: The page content is needed by the guest and has to be
    preserved by the host.
    * Volatile: The page content is useful to the guest but not
    essential. The host can discard the page but has to deliver a
    special kind of fault to the guest if the guest accesses a
    page discarded by the host.

    The unused state is used for free pages, it allows the host to avoid
    the paging of empty pages. The default state for non-free pages is
    stable. The host can write stable pages to a swap device but has
    to restore the page if the guest accesses it. The volatile page state
    is used for clean uptodate page cache pages. The host can choose to
    discard volatile pages as part of its vmscan operation instead of
    writing them to the hosts paging device. The guest system doesn't
    notice that a volatile page is gone until it tries to access the page
    or if it tries to make the page stable again. For a guest access to a
    discarded page the host generates a discard fault to notify the guest.
    The guest has to remove the page from the cache and reload the page
    from its backing device.

    The volatile state is used for all page cache pages, even for pages
    which are referenced by writable ptes. The host needs to be able to
    check the dirty state of the pages. Since the host doesn't know where
    the page table entries of the guest are located, the volatile state as
    introduced by this patch is only usable on architectures with per-page
    dirty bits (s390 only). For per-pte dirty bit architectures some
    additional code is needed, see patch #4.

    The main question is where to put the state transitions between
    the volatile and the stable state. The simple solution is to make a
    page stable whenever a lookup is done or a page reference is derived
    from a page table entry. Attempts to make pages volatile are added at
    strategic points. The conditions that prevent a page from being made
    volatile:
    1) The page is reserved. Some sort of special page.
    2) The page is marked dirty in the struct page. The page content is
    more recent than the data on the backing device. The host cannot
    access the linux internal dirty bit so the page needs to be stable.
    3) The page is in writeback. The page content is needed for i/o.
    4) The page is locked. Someone has exclusive access to the page.
    5) The page is anonymous. Swap cache support needs additional code.
    See patch #2.
    6) The page has no mapping. Without a backing the page cannot be
    recreated.
    7) The page is not uptodate.
    8) The page has private information. try_to_release_page can fail,
    e.g. in case the private information is journaling data. The discard
    fault need to be able to remove the page.
    9) The page is already discarded.
    10) The page is not on the LRU list. The page has been isolated, some
    processing is done.
    11) The page map count is not equal to the page reference count - 1.
    The discard fault handler can remove the page cache reference and
    all mappers of a page. It cannot remove the page reference for any
    other user of the page.

    The transitions to stable are done by find_get_pages() and its variants,
    in follow_page if the FOLL_GET flag is set, by copy-on-write in
    do_wp_page, and by the early copy-on-write in do_no_page. For page cache
    page this is always done with a call to page_make_stable().
    To make enough pages discardable by the host an attempt to do the
    transition to volatile state is done at several places:
    1) When a page gets unlocked (unlock_page).
    2) When writeback has finished (test_clear_page_writeback).
    3) When the page reference counter is decreased (__free_pages,
    page_cache_release alias put_page_check and __free_pages right before
    the put_page_testzero call).
    4) When the map counter in increased (page_add_file_rmap).
    5) When a page is moved from the active list to the inactive list.
    The function for the state transitions to volatile is page_make_volatile().

    The major obstacles that need to get addressed:
    * Concurrent page state changes:
    To guard against concurrent page state updates some kind of lock
    is needed. If page_make_volatile() has already done the 11 checks it
    will issue the state change primitive. If in the meantime one of
    the conditions has changed the user that requires that page in
    stable state will have to wait in the page_make_stable() function
    until the make volatile operation has finished. It is up to the
    architecture to define how this is done with the three primitives
    page_test_set_state_change, page_clear_state_change and
    page_state_change.
    There are some alternatives how this can be done, e.g. a global
    lock, or lock per segment in the kernel page table, or the per page
    bit PG_arch_1 if it is still free.

    * Page references acquired from page tables:
    All page references acquired with find_get_page and friends can be
    used to access the page frame content. A page reference grabbed from
    a page table cannot be used to access the page content, the page has
    to be made stable first. If the make stable operation fails because
    the page has been discarded it has to be removed from page cache.
    That removes the page table entry as well.

    * Page discard vs. __remove_from_page_cache race
    A new page flag PG_discarded is added. This bit is set for discarded
    pages. It prevents multiple removes of a page from the page cache due
    to concurrent discard faults and/or normal page removals. It also
    prevents the re-add of isolated pages to the lru list in vmscan if
    the page has been discarded while it was not on the lru list.

    * Page discard vs. pte establish
    The discard fault handler does three things: 1) set the PG_discarded
    bit for the page, 2) remove the page from all page tables and 3) remove
    the page from the page cache. All page references of the discarded
    page that are still around after step 2 may not be used to establish
    new mappings because step 3 clears the page->mapping field that is
    required to find the mappers. Code that establishes new ptes to pages
    that might be discarded has to check the PG_discarded bit. Step 2 has
    to check all possible location for a pte of a particular page and check
    if the pte exists or another processor might be in the process of
    establishing one. To do that the page table lock for the pte is used.
    See page_unmap_all and the modified quick check in page_check_address
    for the details.

    * copy_one_pte vs. discarded pages
    The code that copies the page tables may not copy ptes for discarded
    pages because this races with the discard fault handler. copy_one_pte
    cannot back out either since there is no automatic repeat of the
    fault that caused the pte modification. Ptes to discarded pages only
    show up in copy_one_pte if a fork races with a discard fault. In this
    case copy_one_pte has to create a pte in the new page table that looks
    like the one that the discard fault handler would have created in the
    original page table if copy_one_pte would not have grabed the page
    table lock first.

    * get_user_pages with FOLL_GET
    If get_user_pages is called with a non-NULL pages argument the caller
    has to be able to access the page content using the references
    returned in the pages array. This is done with a check in follow_page
    for the FOLL_GET bit and a call to page_make_stable.
    If get_user_pages is called with NULL as the pages argument the
    pages are not made stable. The caller cannot expect that the pages
    are available after the call because vmscan might have removed them.

    * buffer heads / page_private
    A page that is modified with sys_write will get a buffer-head to
    keep track of the dirty state. The existence of a buffer-head makes
    PagePrivate(page) return true. Pages with private information cannot
    be made volatile. Until the buffer-head is removed the page will
    stay stable. The standard logic is to call try_to_release_page which
    frees the buffer-head only if more than 10% of GFP_USER memory are
    used for buffer heads. Without high memory every page can have a
    buffer-head without running over the limit. The result is that every
    page written to with sys_write will stay stable until it is removed.
    To get these pages volatile again max_buffer_heads is set to zero (!)
    to force a call to try_to_release_page whenever a page is moved from
    the active to the inactive list.

    * page_free_discarded hook
    The architecture might want/need to do special things for discarded
    pages before they are freed. E.g. s390 has to delay the freeing of
    discarded pages. To allow this a hook in added to free_hot_cold_page.

    Another noticable change is that the first few lines of code in
    try_to_unmap_one that calculates the address from the page and the vma
    is moved out of try_to_unmap_one to the callers. This is done to make
    try_to_unmap_one usable for the removal of discarded pages in
    page_unmap_all.

    Signed-off-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
    ---

    fs/buffer.c | 12 ++
    include/linux/mm.h | 1
    include/linux/page-flags.h | 22 ++++
    include/linux/page-states.h | 123 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    include/linux/pagemap.h | 6 +
    mm/Makefile | 1
    mm/filemap.c | 77 ++++++++++++++++-
    mm/memory.c | 58 ++++++++++++
    mm/page-states.c | 198 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    mm/page-writeback.c | 2
    mm/page_alloc.c | 11 ++
    mm/rmap.c | 96 ++++++++++++++++++---
    mm/swap.c | 35 ++++++-
    mm/vmscan.c | 50 ++++++++---
    14 files changed, 656 insertions(+), 36 deletions(-)

    Index: linux-2.6/fs/buffer.c
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/fs/buffer.c
    +++ linux-2.6/fs/buffer.c
    @@ -3404,11 +3404,23 @@ void __init buffer_init(void)
    SLAB_MEM_SPREAD),
    init_buffer_head);

    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    + /*
    + * If volatile page cache is enabled we want to get as many
    + * pages into volatile state as possible. Pages with private
    + * information cannot be made stable. Set max_buffer_heads
    + * to zero to make shrink_active_list to release the private
    + * information when moving page from the active to the inactive
    + * list.
    + */
    + max_buffer_heads = 0;
    +#else
    /*
    * Limit the bh occupancy to 10% of ZONE_NORMAL
    */
    nrpages = (nr_free_buffer_pages() * 10) / 100;
    max_buffer_heads = nrpages * (PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(struct buffer_head));
    +#endif
    hotcpu_notifier(buffer_cpu_notify, 0);
    }

    Index: linux-2.6/include/linux/mm.h
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/include/linux/mm.h
    +++ linux-2.6/include/linux/mm.h
    @@ -319,6 +319,7 @@ static inline void init_page_count(struc
    }

    void put_page(struct page *page);
    +void put_page_check(struct page *page);
    void put_pages_list(struct list_head *pages);

    void split_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order);
    Index: linux-2.6/include/linux/page-flags.h
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/include/linux/page-flags.h
    +++ linux-2.6/include/linux/page-flags.h
    @@ -101,6 +101,9 @@ enum pageflags {
    #ifdef CONFIG_IA64_UNCACHED_ALLOCATOR
    PG_uncached, /* Page has been mapped as uncached */
    #endif
    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    + PG_discarded, /* Page discarded by the hypervisor. */
    +#endif
    __NR_PAGEFLAGS,

    /* Filesystems */
    @@ -178,6 +181,17 @@ static inline void __ClearPage##uname(st
    #define TESTCLEARFLAG_FALSE(uname) \
    static inline int TestClearPage##uname(struct page *page) { return 0; }

    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    +#define PageDiscarded(page) test_bit(PG_discarded, &(page)->flags)
    +#define ClearPageDiscarded(page) clear_bit(PG_discarded, &(page)->flags)
    +#define TestSetPageDiscarded(page) \
    + test_and_set_bit(PG_discarded, &(page)->flags)
    +#else
    +#define PageDiscarded(page) 0
    +#define ClearPageDiscarded(page) do { } while (0)
    +#define TestSetPageDiscarded(page) 0
    +#endif
    +
    struct page; /* forward declaration */

    TESTPAGEFLAG(Locked, locked)
    @@ -373,6 +387,12 @@ static inline void __ClearPageTail(struc
    #define __PG_MLOCKED 0
    #endif

    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    +#define __PG_DISCARDED (1 << PG_discarded)
    +#else
    +#define __PG_DISCARDED 0
    +#endif
    +
    /*
    * Flags checked when a page is freed. Pages being freed should not have
    * these flags set. It they are, there is a problem.
    @@ -381,7 +401,7 @@ static inline void __ClearPageTail(struc
    (1 << PG_lru | 1 << PG_private | 1 << PG_locked | \
    1 << PG_buddy | 1 << PG_writeback | 1 << PG_reserved | \
    1 << PG_slab | 1 << PG_swapcache | 1 << PG_active | \
    - __PG_UNEVICTABLE | __PG_MLOCKED)
    + __PG_UNEVICTABLE | __PG_MLOCKED | __PG_DISCARDED)

    /*
    * Flags checked when a page is prepped for return by the page allocator.
    Index: linux-2.6/include/linux/page-states.h
    ===================================================================
    --- /dev/null
    +++ linux-2.6/include/linux/page-states.h
    @@ -0,0 +1,123 @@
    +#ifndef _LINUX_PAGE_STATES_H
    +#define _LINUX_PAGE_STATES_H
    +
    +/*
    + * include/linux/page-states.h
    + *
    + * Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2007
    + *
    + * Authors: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
    + * Hubertus Franke <frankeh@watson.ibm.com>
    + * Himanshu Raj <rhim@cc.gatech.edu>
    + */
    +
    +#include <linux/pagevec.h>
    +
    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    +/*
    + * Guest page hinting primitives that need to be defined in the
    + * architecture header file if PAGE_STATES=y:
    + * - page_host_discards:
    + * Indicates whether the host system discards guest pages or not.
    + * - page_set_unused:
    + * Indicates to the host that the page content is of no interest
    + * to the guest. The host can "forget" the page content and replace
    + * it with a page containing zeroes.
    + * - page_set_stable:
    + * Indicate to the host that the page content is needed by the guest.
    + * - page_set_volatile:
    + * Make the page discardable by the host. Instead of writing the
    + * page to the hosts swap device, the host can remove the page.
    + * A guest that accesses such a discarded page gets a special
    + * discard fault.
    + * - page_set_stable_if_present:
    + * The page state is set to stable if the page has not been discarded
    + * by the host. The check and the state change have to be done
    + * atomically.
    + * - page_discarded:
    + * Returns true if the page has been discarded by the host.
    + * - page_volatile:
    + * Returns true if the page is marked volatile.
    + * - page_test_set_state_change:
    + * Tries to lock the page for state change. The primitive does not need
    + * to have page granularity, it can lock a range of pages.
    + * - page_clear_state_change:
    + * Unlocks a page for state changes.
    + * - page_state_change:
    + * Returns true if the page is locked for state change.
    + * - page_free_discarded:
    + * Free a discarded page. This might require to put the page on a
    + * discard list and a synchronization over all cpus. Returns true
    + * if the architecture backend wants to do special things on free.
    + */
    +#include <asm/page-states.h>
    +
    +extern void page_unmap_all(struct page *page);
    +extern void page_discard(struct page *page);
    +extern int __page_make_stable(struct page *page);
    +extern void __page_make_volatile(struct page *page, int offset);
    +extern void __pagevec_make_volatile(struct pagevec *pvec);
    +
    +/*
    + * Extended guest page hinting functions defined by using the
    + * architecture primitives:
    + * - page_make_stable:
    + * Tries to make a page stable. This operation can fail if the
    + * host has discarded a page. The function returns != 0 if the
    + * page could not be made stable.
    + * - page_make_volatile:
    + * Tries to make a page volatile. There are a number of conditions
    + * that prevent a page from becoming volatile. If at least one
    + * is true the function does nothing. See mm/page-states.c for
    + * details.
    + * - pagevec_make_volatile:
    + * Tries to make a vector of pages volatile. For each page in the
    + * vector the same conditions apply as for page_make_volatile.
    + * - page_discard:
    + * Removes a discarded page from the system. The page is removed
    + * from the LRU list and the radix tree of its mapping.
    + * page_discard uses page_unmap_all to remove all page table
    + * entries for a page.
    + */
    +
    +static inline int page_make_stable(struct page *page)
    +{
    + return page_host_discards() ? __page_make_stable(page) : 1;
    +}
    +
    +static inline void page_make_volatile(struct page *page, int offset)
    +{
    + if (page_host_discards())
    + __page_make_volatile(page, offset);
    +}
    +
    +static inline void pagevec_make_volatile(struct pagevec *pvec)
    +{
    + if (page_host_discards())
    + __pagevec_make_volatile(pvec);
    +}
    +
    +#else
    +
    +#define page_host_discards() (0)
    +#define page_set_unused(_page,_order) do { } while (0)
    +#define page_set_stable(_page,_order) do { } while (0)
    +#define page_set_volatile(_page) do { } while (0)
    +#define page_set_stable_if_present(_page) (1)
    +#define page_discarded(_page) (0)
    +#define page_volatile(_page) (0)
    +
    +#define page_test_set_state_change(_page) (0)
    +#define page_clear_state_change(_page) do { } while (0)
    +#define page_state_change(_page) (0)
    +
    +#define page_free_discarded(_page) (0)
    +
    +#define page_make_stable(_page) (1)
    +#define page_make_volatile(_page, offset) do { } while (0)
    +#define pagevec_make_volatile(_pagevec) do { } while (0)
    +#define page_discard(_page) do { } while (0)
    +
    +#endif
    +
    +#endif /* _LINUX_PAGE_STATES_H */
    Index: linux-2.6/include/linux/pagemap.h
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/include/linux/pagemap.h
    +++ linux-2.6/include/linux/pagemap.h
    @@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
    #include <linux/gfp.h>
    #include <linux/bitops.h>
    #include <linux/hardirq.h> /* for in_interrupt() */
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>

    /*
    * Bits in mapping->flags. The lower __GFP_BITS_SHIFT bits are the page
    @@ -89,7 +90,11 @@ static inline void mapping_set_gfp_mask(
    #define PAGE_CACHE_ALIGN(addr) (((addr)+PAGE_CACHE_SIZE-1)&PAGE_CACHE_MASK)

    #define page_cache_get(page) get_page(page)
    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    +#define page_cache_release(page) put_page_check(page)
    +#else
    #define page_cache_release(page) put_page(page)
    +#endif
    void release_pages(struct page **pages, int nr, int cold);

    /*
    @@ -436,6 +441,7 @@ int add_to_page_cache_lru(struct page *p
    pgoff_t index, gfp_t gfp_mask);
    extern void remove_from_page_cache(struct page *page);
    extern void __remove_from_page_cache(struct page *page);
    +extern void __remove_from_page_cache_nocheck(struct page *page);

    /*
    * Like add_to_page_cache_locked, but used to add newly allocated pages:
    Index: linux-2.6/mm/Makefile
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/mm/Makefile
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/Makefile
    @@ -33,3 +33,4 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_MIGRATION) += migrate.o
    obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += allocpercpu.o
    obj-$(CONFIG_QUICKLIST) += quicklist.o
    obj-$(CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR) += memcontrol.o page_cgroup.o
    +obj-$(CONFIG_PAGE_STATES) += page-states.o
    Index: linux-2.6/mm/filemap.c
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/mm/filemap.c
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/filemap.c
    @@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
    #include <linux/hardirq.h> /* for BUG_ON(!in_atomic()) only */
    #include <linux/memcontrol.h>
    #include <linux/mm_inline.h> /* for page_is_file_cache() */
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>
    #include "internal.h"

    /*
    @@ -112,7 +113,7 @@
    * sure the page is locked and that nobody else uses it - or that usage
    * is safe. The caller must hold the mapping's tree_lock.
    */
    -void __remove_from_page_cache(struct page *page)
    +void inline __remove_from_page_cache_nocheck(struct page *page)
    {
    struct address_space *mapping = page->mapping;

    @@ -136,6 +137,28 @@ void __remove_from_page_cache(struct pag
    }
    }

    +void __remove_from_page_cache(struct page *page)
    +{
    + /*
    + * Check if the discard fault handler already removed
    + * the page from the page cache. If not set the discard
    + * bit in the page flags to prevent double page free if
    + * a discard fault is racing with normal page free.
    + */
    + if (TestSetPageDiscarded(page))
    + return;
    +
    + __remove_from_page_cache_nocheck(page);
    +
    + /*
    + * Check the hardware page state and clear the discard
    + * bit in the page flags only if the page is not
    + * discarded.
    + */
    + if (!page_discarded(page))
    + ClearPageDiscarded(page);
    +}
    +
    void remove_from_page_cache(struct page *page)
    {
    struct address_space *mapping = page->mapping;
    @@ -581,6 +604,7 @@ void unlock_page(struct page *page)
    VM_BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));
    clear_bit_unlock(PG_locked, &page->flags);
    smp_mb__after_clear_bit();
    + page_make_volatile(page, 1);
    wake_up_page(page, PG_locked);
    }
    EXPORT_SYMBOL(unlock_page);
    @@ -679,6 +703,15 @@ repeat:
    }
    rcu_read_unlock();

    + if (page && unlikely(!page_make_stable(page))) {
    + /*
    + * The page has been discarded by the host. Run the
    + * discard handler and return NULL.
    + */
    + page_discard(page);
    + page = NULL;
    + }
    +
    return page;
    }
    EXPORT_SYMBOL(find_get_page);
    @@ -783,6 +816,7 @@ unsigned find_get_pages(struct address_s
    unsigned int ret;
    unsigned int nr_found;

    +from_scratch:
    rcu_read_lock();
    restart:
    nr_found = radix_tree_gang_lookup_slot(&mapping->page_tree,
    @@ -812,6 +846,19 @@ repeat:

    pages[ret] = page;
    ret++;
    +
    + if (likely(page_make_stable(page)))
    + continue;
    + /*
    + * Make stable failed, we discard the page and retry the
    + * whole operation.
    + */
    + ret--;
    + rcu_read_unlock();
    + page_discard(page);
    + while (ret--)
    + page_cache_release(pages[ret]);
    + goto from_scratch;
    }
    rcu_read_unlock();
    return ret;
    @@ -836,6 +883,7 @@ unsigned find_get_pages_contig(struct ad
    unsigned int ret;
    unsigned int nr_found;

    +from_scratch:
    rcu_read_lock();
    restart:
    nr_found = radix_tree_gang_lookup_slot(&mapping->page_tree,
    @@ -869,6 +917,19 @@ repeat:
    pages[ret] = page;
    ret++;
    index++;
    +
    + if (likely(page_make_stable(page)))
    + continue;
    + /*
    + * Make stable failed, we discard the page and retry the
    + * whole operation.
    + */
    + ret--;
    + rcu_read_unlock();
    + page_discard(page);
    + while (ret--)
    + page_cache_release(pages[ret]);
    + goto from_scratch;
    }
    rcu_read_unlock();
    return ret;
    @@ -893,6 +954,7 @@ unsigned find_get_pages_tag(struct addre
    unsigned int ret;
    unsigned int nr_found;

    +from_scratch:
    rcu_read_lock();
    restart:
    nr_found = radix_tree_gang_lookup_tag_slot(&mapping->page_tree,
    @@ -922,6 +984,19 @@ repeat:

    pages[ret] = page;
    ret++;
    +
    + if (likely(page_make_stable(page)))
    + continue;
    + /*
    + * Make stable failed, we discard the page and retry the
    + * whole operation.
    + */
    + ret--;
    + rcu_read_unlock();
    + page_discard(page);
    + while (ret--)
    + page_cache_release(pages[ret]);
    + goto from_scratch;
    }
    rcu_read_unlock();

    Index: linux-2.6/mm/memory.c
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/mm/memory.c
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/memory.c
    @@ -55,6 +55,7 @@
    #include <linux/kallsyms.h>
    #include <linux/swapops.h>
    #include <linux/elf.h>
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>

    #include <asm/pgalloc.h>
    #include <asm/uaccess.h>
    @@ -594,6 +595,8 @@ copy_one_pte(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, s

    page = vm_normal_page(vma, addr, pte);
    if (page) {
    + if (unlikely(PageDiscarded(page)))
    + goto out_discard_pte;
    get_page(page);
    page_dup_rmap(page, vma, addr);
    rss[!!PageAnon(page)]++;
    @@ -601,6 +604,21 @@ copy_one_pte(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, s

    out_set_pte:
    set_pte_at(dst_mm, addr, dst_pte, pte);
    + return;
    +
    +out_discard_pte:
    + /*
    + * If the page referred by the pte has the PG_discarded bit set,
    + * copy_one_pte is racing with page_discard. The pte may not be
    + * copied or we can end up with a pte pointing to a page not
    + * in the page cache anymore. Do what try_to_unmap_one would do
    + * if the copy_one_pte had taken place before page_discard.
    + */
    + if (page->index != linear_page_index(vma, addr))
    + /* If nonlinear, store the file page offset in the pte. */
    + set_pte_at(dst_mm, addr, dst_pte, pgoff_to_pte(page->index));
    + else
    + pte_clear(dst_mm, addr, dst_pte);
    }

    static int copy_pte_range(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, struct mm_struct *src_mm,
    @@ -1147,6 +1165,19 @@ struct page *follow_page(struct vm_area_

    if (flags & FOLL_GET)
    get_page(page);
    +
    + if (flags & FOLL_GET) {
    + /*
    + * The page is made stable if a reference is acquired.
    + * If the caller does not get a reference it implies that
    + * the caller can deal with page faults in case the page
    + * is swapped out. In this case the caller can deal with
    + * discard faults as well.
    + */
    + if (unlikely(!page_make_stable(page)))
    + goto out_discard;
    + }
    +
    if (flags & FOLL_TOUCH) {
    if ((flags & FOLL_WRITE) &&
    !pte_dirty(pte) && !PageDirty(page))
    @@ -1179,6 +1210,11 @@ no_page_table:
    BUG_ON(flags & FOLL_WRITE);
    }
    return page;
    +
    +out_discard:
    + pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
    + page_discard(page);
    + return NULL;
    }

    /* Can we do the FOLL_ANON optimization? */
    @@ -1969,6 +2005,11 @@ static int do_wp_page(struct mm_struct *
    dirty_page = old_page;
    get_page(dirty_page);
    reuse = 1;
    + /*
    + * dirty_page will be set dirty, so it needs to be stable.
    + */
    + if (unlikely(!page_make_stable(dirty_page)))
    + goto discard;
    }

    if (reuse) {
    @@ -1986,6 +2027,12 @@ reuse:
    * Ok, we need to copy. Oh, well..
    */
    page_cache_get(old_page);
    + /*
    + * To copy the content of old_page it needs to be stable.
    + * page_cache_release on old_page will make it volatile again.
    + */
    + if (unlikely(!page_make_stable(old_page)))
    + goto discard;
    gotten:
    pte_unmap_unlock(page_table, ptl);

    @@ -2100,6 +2147,10 @@ oom:
    unwritable_page:
    page_cache_release(old_page);
    return VM_FAULT_SIGBUS;
    +discard:
    + pte_unmap_unlock(page_table, ptl);
    + page_discard(old_page);
    + return VM_FAULT_MINOR;
    }

    /*
    @@ -2591,7 +2642,7 @@ static int __do_fault(struct mm_struct *
    vmf.pgoff = pgoff;
    vmf.flags = flags;
    vmf.page = NULL;
    -
    +retry:
    ret = vma->vm_ops->fault(vma, &vmf);
    if (unlikely(ret & (VM_FAULT_ERROR | VM_FAULT_NOPAGE)))
    return ret;
    @@ -2616,6 +2667,11 @@ static int __do_fault(struct mm_struct *
    ret = VM_FAULT_OOM;
    goto out;
    }
    + if (unlikely(!page_make_stable(vmf.page))) {
    + unlock_page(vmf.page);
    + page_discard(vmf.page);
    + goto retry;
    + }
    page = alloc_page_vma(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE,
    vma, address);
    if (!page) {
    Index: linux-2.6/mm/page-states.c
    ===================================================================
    --- /dev/null
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/page-states.c
    @@ -0,0 +1,198 @@
    +/*
    + * mm/page-states.c
    + *
    + * (C) Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2007
    + *
    + * Guest page hinting functions.
    + *
    + * Authors: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
    + * Hubertus Franke <frankeh@watson.ibm.com>
    + * Himanshu Raj <rhim@cc.gatech.edu>
    + */
    +
    +#include <linux/memcontrol.h>
    +#include <linux/mm.h>
    +#include <linux/mm_inline.h>
    +#include <linux/pagemap.h>
    +#include <linux/rmap.h>
    +#include <linux/module.h>
    +#include <linux/spinlock.h>
    +#include <linux/buffer_head.h>
    +#include <linux/pagevec.h>
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>
    +
    +#include "internal.h"
    +
    +/*
    + * Check if there is anything in the page flags or the mapping
    + * that prevents the page from changing its state to volatile.
    + */
    +static inline int check_bits(struct page *page)
    +{
    + /*
    + * There are several conditions that prevent a page from becoming
    + * volatile. The first check is for the page bits.
    + */
    + if (PageDirty(page) || PageReserved(page) || PageWriteback(page) ||
    + PageLocked(page) || PagePrivate(page) || PageDiscarded(page) ||
    + !PageUptodate(page) || !PageLRU(page) || PageAnon(page))
    + return 0;
    +
    + /*
    + * If the page has been truncated there is no point in making
    + * it volatile. It will be freed soon. And if the mapping ever
    + * had locked pages all pages of the mapping will stay stable.
    + */
    + return page_mapping(page) != NULL;
    +}
    +
    +/*
    + * Check the reference counter of the page against the number of
    + * mappings. The caller passes an offset, that is the number of
    + * extra, known references. The page cache itself is one extra
    + * reference. If the caller acquired an additional reference then
    + * the offset would be 2. If the page map counter is equal to the
    + * page count minus the offset then there is no other, unknown
    + * user of the page in the system.
    + */
    +static inline int check_counts(struct page *page, unsigned int offset)
    +{
    + return page_mapcount(page) + offset == page_count(page);
    +}
    +
    +/*
    + * Attempts to change the state of a page to volatile.
    + * If there is something preventing the state change the page stays
    + * in its current state.
    + */
    +void __page_make_volatile(struct page *page, int offset)
    +{
    + preempt_disable();
    + if (!page_test_set_state_change(page)) {
    + if (check_bits(page) && check_counts(page, offset))
    + page_set_volatile(page);
    + page_clear_state_change(page);
    + }
    + preempt_enable();
    +}
    +EXPORT_SYMBOL(__page_make_volatile);
    +
    +/*
    + * Attempts to change the state of a vector of pages to volatile.
    + * If there is something preventing the state change the page stays
    + * int its current state.
    + */
    +void __pagevec_make_volatile(struct pagevec *pvec)
    +{
    + struct page *page;
    + int i = pagevec_count(pvec);
    +
    + while (--i >= 0) {
    + /*
    + * If we can't get the state change bit just give up.
    + * The worst that can happen is that the page will stay
    + * in the stable state although it might be volatile.
    + */
    + page = pvec->pages[i];
    + if (!page_test_set_state_change(page)) {
    + if (check_bits(page) && check_counts(page, 1))
    + page_set_volatile(page);
    + page_clear_state_change(page);
    + }
    + }
    +}
    +EXPORT_SYMBOL(__pagevec_make_volatile);
    +
    +/*
    + * Attempts to change the state of a page to stable. The host could
    + * have removed a volatile page, the page_set_stable_if_present call
    + * can fail.
    + *
    + * returns "0" on success and "1" on failure
    + */
    +int __page_make_stable(struct page *page)
    +{
    + /*
    + * Postpone state change to stable until the state change bit is
    + * cleared. As long as the state change bit is set another cpu
    + * is in page_make_volatile for this page. That makes sure that
    + * no caller of make_stable "overtakes" a make_volatile leaving
    + * the page in volatile where stable is required.
    + * The caller of make_stable need to make sure that no caller
    + * of make_volatile can make the page volatile right after
    + * make_stable has finished.
    + */
    + while (page_state_change(page))
    + cpu_relax();
    + return page_set_stable_if_present(page);
    +}
    +EXPORT_SYMBOL(__page_make_stable);
    +
    +/**
    + * __page_discard() - remove a discarded page from the cache
    + *
    + * @page: the page
    + *
    + * The page passed to this function needs to be locked.
    + */
    +static void __page_discard(struct page *page)
    +{
    + struct address_space *mapping;
    + struct zone *zone;
    +
    + /* Paranoia checks. */
    + VM_BUG_ON(PageWriteback(page));
    + VM_BUG_ON(PageDirty(page));
    + VM_BUG_ON(PagePrivate(page));
    +
    + /* Set the discarded bit early. */
    + if (TestSetPageDiscarded(page))
    + return;
    +
    + /* Unmap the page from all page tables. */
    + page_unmap_all(page);
    +
    + /* Check if really all mappers of this page are gone. */
    + VM_BUG_ON(page_mapcount(page) != 0);
    +
    + /*
    + * Remove the page from LRU if it is currently added.
    + * The users of isolate_lru_pages need to check the
    + * discarded bit before readding the page to the LRU.
    + */
    + zone = page_zone(page);
    + spin_lock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    + if (PageLRU(page)) {
    + /* Unlink page from lru. */
    + __ClearPageLRU(page);
    + del_page_from_lru(zone, page);
    + }
    + spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    +
    + /* We can't handle swap cache pages (yet). */
    + VM_BUG_ON(PageSwapCache(page));
    +
    + /* Remove page from page cache. */
    + mapping = page->mapping;
    + spin_lock_irq(&mapping->tree_lock);
    + __remove_from_page_cache_nocheck(page);
    + spin_unlock_irq(&mapping->tree_lock);
    + __put_page(page);
    +}
    +
    +/**
    + * page_discard() - remove a discarded page from the cache
    + *
    + * @page: the page
    + *
    + * Before calling this function an additional page reference needs to
    + * be acquired. This reference is released by the function.
    + */
    +void page_discard(struct page *page)
    +{
    + lock_page(page);
    + __page_discard(page);
    + unlock_page(page);
    + page_cache_release(page);
    +}
    +EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_discard);
    Index: linux-2.6/mm/page-writeback.c
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/mm/page-writeback.c
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/page-writeback.c
    @@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
    #include <linux/syscalls.h>
    #include <linux/buffer_head.h>
    #include <linux/pagevec.h>
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>

    /*
    * The maximum number of pages to writeout in a single bdflush/kupdate
    @@ -1390,6 +1391,7 @@ int test_clear_page_writeback(struct pag
    radix_tree_tag_clear(&mapping->page_tree,
    page_index(page),
    PAGECACHE_TAG_WRITEBACK);
    + page_make_volatile(page, 1);
    if (bdi_cap_account_writeback(bdi)) {
    __dec_bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_WRITEBACK);
    __bdi_writeout_inc(bdi);
    Index: linux-2.6/mm/page_alloc.c
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/mm/page_alloc.c
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/page_alloc.c
    @@ -46,6 +46,7 @@
    #include <linux/page-isolation.h>
    #include <linux/page_cgroup.h>
    #include <linux/debugobjects.h>
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>

    #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
    #include <asm/div64.h>
    @@ -553,6 +554,7 @@ static void __free_pages_ok(struct page
    bad += free_pages_check(page + i);
    if (bad)
    return;
    + page_set_unused(page, order);

    if (!PageHighMem(page)) {
    debug_check_no_locks_freed(page_address(page),PAGE_SIZE<<order);
    @@ -1000,10 +1002,16 @@ static void free_hot_cold_page(struct pa
    struct per_cpu_pages *pcp;
    unsigned long flags;

    + if (unlikely(PageDiscarded(page))) {
    + if (page_free_discarded(page))
    + return;
    + }
    +
    if (PageAnon(page))
    page->mapping = NULL;
    if (free_pages_check(page))
    return;
    + page_set_unused(page, 0);

    if (!PageHighMem(page)) {
    debug_check_no_locks_freed(page_address(page), PAGE_SIZE);
    @@ -1119,6 +1127,7 @@ again:
    put_cpu();

    VM_BUG_ON(bad_range(zone, page));
    + page_set_stable(page, order);
    if (prep_new_page(page, order, gfp_flags))
    goto again;
    return page;
    @@ -1714,6 +1723,8 @@ void __pagevec_free(struct pagevec *pvec

    void __free_pages(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
    {
    + if (page_count(page) > 1)
    + page_make_volatile(page, 2);
    if (put_page_testzero(page)) {
    if (order == 0)
    free_hot_page(page);
    Index: linux-2.6/mm/rmap.c
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/mm/rmap.c
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/rmap.c
    @@ -50,6 +50,7 @@
    #include <linux/memcontrol.h>
    #include <linux/mmu_notifier.h>
    #include <linux/migrate.h>
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>

    #include <asm/tlbflush.h>

    @@ -286,13 +287,25 @@ pte_t *page_check_address(struct page *p
    return NULL;

    pte = pte_offset_map(pmd, address);
    + ptl = pte_lockptr(mm, pmd);
    /* Make a quick check before getting the lock */
    +#ifndef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    + /*
    + * If the page table lock for this pte is taken we have to
    + * assume that someone might be mapping the page. To solve
    + * the race of a page discard vs. mapping the page we have
    + * to serialize the two operations by taking the lock,
    + * otherwise we end up with a pte for a page that has been
    + * removed from page cache by the discard fault handler.
    + * So for CONFIG_PAGE_STATES=yes the !pte_present optimization
    + * need to be deactivated.
    + */
    if (!sync && !pte_present(*pte)) {
    pte_unmap(pte);
    return NULL;
    }
    +#endif

    - ptl = pte_lockptr(mm, pmd);
    spin_lock(ptl);
    if (pte_present(*pte) && page_to_pfn(page) == pte_pfn(*pte)) {
    *ptlp = ptl;
    @@ -690,6 +703,7 @@ void page_add_file_rmap(struct page *pag
    {
    if (atomic_inc_and_test(&page->_mapcount))
    __inc_zone_page_state(page, NR_FILE_MAPPED);
    + page_make_volatile(page, 1);
    }

    #ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
    @@ -755,19 +769,14 @@ void page_remove_rmap(struct page *page)
    * repeatedly from either try_to_unmap_anon or try_to_unmap_file.
    */
    static int try_to_unmap_one(struct page *page, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
    - int migration)
    + unsigned long address, int migration)
    {
    struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
    - unsigned long address;
    pte_t *pte;
    pte_t pteval;
    spinlock_t *ptl;
    int ret = SWAP_AGAIN;

    - address = vma_address(page, vma);
    - if (address == -EFAULT)
    - goto out;
    -
    pte = page_check_address(page, mm, address, &ptl, 0);
    if (!pte)
    goto out;
    @@ -831,9 +840,14 @@ static int try_to_unmap_one(struct page
    swp_entry_t entry;
    entry = make_migration_entry(page, pte_write(pteval));
    set_pte_at(mm, address, pte, swp_entry_to_pte(entry));
    - } else
    + } else {
    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    + /* If nonlinear, store the file page offset in the pte. */
    + if (page->index != linear_page_index(vma, address))
    + set_pte_at(mm, address, pte, pgoff_to_pte(page->index));
    +#endif
    dec_mm_counter(mm, file_rss);
    -
    + }

    page_remove_rmap(page);
    page_cache_release(page);
    @@ -1000,6 +1014,7 @@ static int try_to_unmap_anon(struct page
    struct anon_vma *anon_vma;
    struct vm_area_struct *vma;
    unsigned int mlocked = 0;
    + unsigned long address;
    int ret = SWAP_AGAIN;

    if (MLOCK_PAGES && unlikely(unlock))
    @@ -1016,7 +1031,10 @@ static int try_to_unmap_anon(struct page
    continue; /* must visit all unlocked vmas */
    ret = SWAP_MLOCK; /* saw at least one mlocked vma */
    } else {
    - ret = try_to_unmap_one(page, vma, migration);
    + address = vma_address(page, vma);
    + if (address == -EFAULT)
    + continue;
    + ret = try_to_unmap_one(page, vma, address, migration);
    if (ret == SWAP_FAIL || !page_mapped(page))
    break;
    }
    @@ -1060,6 +1078,7 @@ static int try_to_unmap_file(struct page
    struct vm_area_struct *vma;
    struct prio_tree_iter iter;
    int ret = SWAP_AGAIN;
    + unsigned long address;
    unsigned long cursor;
    unsigned long max_nl_cursor = 0;
    unsigned long max_nl_size = 0;
    @@ -1077,7 +1096,10 @@ static int try_to_unmap_file(struct page
    continue; /* must visit all vmas */
    ret = SWAP_MLOCK;
    } else {
    - ret = try_to_unmap_one(page, vma, migration);
    + address = vma_address(page, vma);
    + if (address == -EFAULT)
    + continue;
    + ret = try_to_unmap_one(page, vma, address, migration);
    if (ret == SWAP_FAIL || !page_mapped(page))
    goto out;
    }
    @@ -1227,3 +1249,55 @@ int try_to_munlock(struct page *page)
    return try_to_unmap_file(page, 1, 0);
    }
    #endif
    +
    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    +
    +/**
    + * page_unmap_all - removes all mappings of a page
    + *
    + * @page: the page which mapping in the vma should be struck down
    + *
    + * the caller needs to hold page lock
    + */
    +void page_unmap_all(struct page* page)
    +{
    + struct address_space *mapping = page_mapping(page);
    + pgoff_t pgoff = page->index << (PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT - PAGE_SHIFT);
    + struct vm_area_struct *vma;
    + struct prio_tree_iter iter;
    + unsigned long address;
    + int rc;
    +
    + VM_BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page) || PageReserved(page) || PageAnon(page));
    +
    + spin_lock(&mapping->i_mmap_lock);
    + vma_prio_tree_foreach(vma, &iter, &mapping->i_mmap, pgoff, pgoff) {
    + address = vma_address(page, vma);
    + if (address == -EFAULT)
    + continue;
    + rc = try_to_unmap_one(page, vma, address, 0);
    + VM_BUG_ON(rc == SWAP_FAIL);
    + }
    +
    + if (list_empty(&mapping->i_mmap_nonlinear))
    + goto out;
    +
    + /*
    + * Remove the non-linear mappings of the page. This is
    + * awfully slow, but we have to find that discarded page..
    + */
    + list_for_each_entry(vma, &mapping->i_mmap_nonlinear,
    + shared.vm_set.list) {
    + address = vma->vm_start;
    + while (address < vma->vm_end) {
    + rc = try_to_unmap_one(page, vma, address, 0);
    + VM_BUG_ON(rc == SWAP_FAIL);
    + address += PAGE_SIZE;
    + }
    + }
    +
    +out:
    + spin_unlock(&mapping->i_mmap_lock);
    +}
    +
    +#endif
    Index: linux-2.6/mm/swap.c
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/mm/swap.c
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/swap.c
    @@ -30,6 +30,7 @@
    #include <linux/notifier.h>
    #include <linux/backing-dev.h>
    #include <linux/memcontrol.h>
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>

    #include "internal.h"

    @@ -78,6 +79,16 @@ void put_page(struct page *page)
    }
    EXPORT_SYMBOL(put_page);

    +#ifdef CONFIG_PAGE_STATES
    +void put_page_check(struct page *page)
    +{
    + if (page_count(page) > 1)
    + page_make_volatile(page, 2);
    + put_page(page);
    +}
    +EXPORT_SYMBOL(put_page_check);
    +#endif
    +
    /**
    * put_pages_list() - release a list of pages
    * @pages: list of pages threaded on page->lru
    @@ -421,14 +432,22 @@ void ____pagevec_lru_add(struct pagevec
    }
    VM_BUG_ON(PageActive(page));
    VM_BUG_ON(PageUnevictable(page));
    - VM_BUG_ON(PageLRU(page));
    - SetPageLRU(page);
    - active = is_active_lru(lru);
    - file = is_file_lru(lru);
    - if (active)
    - SetPageActive(page);
    - update_page_reclaim_stat(zone, page, file, active);
    - add_page_to_lru_list(zone, page, lru);
    + /*
    + * Only add the page to lru list if it has not
    + * been discarded.
    + */
    + if (likely(!PageDiscarded(page))) {
    + VM_BUG_ON(PageLRU(page));
    + SetPageLRU(page);
    + active = is_active_lru(lru);
    + file = is_file_lru(lru);
    + if (active)
    + SetPageActive(page);
    + update_page_reclaim_stat(zone, page, file, active);
    + add_page_to_lru_list(zone, page, lru);
    + page_make_volatile(page, 2);
    + } else
    + ClearPageActive(page);
    }
    if (zone)
    spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    Index: linux-2.6/mm/vmscan.c
    ===================================================================
    --- linux-2.6.orig/mm/vmscan.c
    +++ linux-2.6/mm/vmscan.c
    @@ -40,6 +40,7 @@
    #include <linux/memcontrol.h>
    #include <linux/delayacct.h>
    #include <linux/sysctl.h>
    +#include <linux/page-states.h>

    #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
    #include <asm/div64.h>
    @@ -606,6 +607,9 @@ static unsigned long shrink_page_list(st
    if (unlikely(!page_evictable(page, NULL)))
    goto cull_mlocked;

    + if (unlikely(PageDiscarded(page)))
    + goto free_it;
    +
    if (!sc->may_swap && page_mapped(page))
    goto keep_locked;

    @@ -1152,13 +1156,20 @@ static unsigned long shrink_inactive_lis
    spin_lock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    continue;
    }
    - SetPageLRU(page);
    - lru = page_lru(page);
    - add_page_to_lru_list(zone, page, lru);
    - if (PageActive(page)) {
    - int file = !!page_is_file_cache(page);
    - reclaim_stat->recent_rotated[file]++;
    - }
    + /*
    + * Only readd the page to lru list if it has not
    + * been discarded.
    + */
    + if (likely(!PageDiscarded(page))) {
    + SetPageLRU(page);
    + lru = page_lru(page);
    + add_page_to_lru_list(zone, page, lru);
    + if (PageActive(page)) {
    + int file = !!page_is_file_cache(page);
    + reclaim_stat->recent_rotated[file]++;
    + }
    + } else
    + ClearPageActive(page);
    if (!pagevec_add(&pvec, page)) {
    spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    __pagevec_release(&pvec);
    @@ -1278,13 +1289,22 @@ static void shrink_active_list(unsigned
    page = lru_to_page(&l_inactive);
    prefetchw_prev_lru_page(page, &l_inactive, flags);
    VM_BUG_ON(PageLRU(page));
    - SetPageLRU(page);
    - VM_BUG_ON(!PageActive(page));
    - ClearPageActive(page);
    -
    - list_move(&page->lru, &zone->lru[lru].list);
    - mem_cgroup_add_lru_list(page, lru);
    - pgmoved++;
    + /*
    + * Only readd the page to lru list if it has not
    + * been discarded.
    + */
    + if (likely(!PageDiscarded(page))) {
    + SetPageLRU(page);
    + VM_BUG_ON(!PageActive(page));
    + ClearPageActive(page);
    + list_move(&page->lru, &zone->lru[lru].list);
    + mem_cgroup_add_lru_list(page, lru);
    + pgmoved++;
    + } else {
    + ClearPageActive(page);
    + list_del(&page->lru);
    + }
    +
    if (!pagevec_add(&pvec, page)) {
    __mod_zone_page_state(zone, NR_LRU_BASE + lru, pgmoved);
    spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    @@ -1292,6 +1312,7 @@ static void shrink_active_list(unsigned
    pgmoved = 0;
    if (buffer_heads_over_limit)
    pagevec_strip(&pvec);
    + pagevec_make_volatile(&pvec);
    __pagevec_release(&pvec);
    spin_lock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    }
    @@ -1301,6 +1322,7 @@ static void shrink_active_list(unsigned
    if (buffer_heads_over_limit) {
    spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    pagevec_strip(&pvec);
    + pagevec_make_volatile(&pvec);
    spin_lock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
    }
    __count_zone_vm_events(PGREFILL, zone, pgscanned);
    --
    blue skies,
    Martin.

    "Reality continues to ruin my life." - Calvin.



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