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SubjectRe: [PATCH 4/6] ftrace, x86: make kernel text writable only for conversions
* Masami Hiramatsu (mhiramat@redhat.com) wrote:
> Mathieu Desnoyers wrote:
> > * Masami Hiramatsu (mhiramat@redhat.com) wrote:
> >> Steven Rostedt wrote:
> >>> On Mon, 23 Feb 2009, Mathieu Desnoyers wrote:
> >>>>> Hmm, lets see. I simply set a bit in the PTE mappings. There's not many,
> >>>>> since a lot are 2M pages, for x86_64. Call stop_machine, and now I can
> >>>>> modify 1 or 20,000 locations. Set the PTE bit back. Note, the changing of
> >>>>> the bits are only done when CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA is set.
> >>>>>
> >>>>> text_poke requires allocating a page. Map the page into memory. Set up a
> >>>>> break point.
> >>>> text_poke does not _require_ a break point. text_poke can work with
> >>>> stop_machine.
> >>> It can? Doesn't text_poke require allocating pages? The code called by
> >>> stop_machine is all atomic. vmap does not give an option to allocate with
> >>> GFP_ATOMIC.
> >> Hi,
> >>
> >> With my patch, text_poke() never allocate pages any more :)
> >>
> >> BTW, IMHO, both of your methods are useful and have trade-off.
> >>
> >> ftrace wants to change massive amount of code at once. If we do
> >> that with text_poke(), we have to map/unmap pages each time and
> >> it will take a long time -- might be longer than one stop_machine_run().
> >>
> >> On the other hand, text_poke() user like as kprobes and tracepoints,
> >> just want to change a few amount of code at once, and it will be
> >> added/removed incrementally. If we do that with stop_machine_run(),
> >> we'll be annoyed by frequent machine stops.(Moreover, kprobes uses
> >> breakpoint, so it doesn't need stop_machine_run())
> >>
> >
> > Hi Masami,
> >
> > Is this text_poke version executable in atomic context ? If yes, then
> > that would be good to add a comment saying it. Please see below for
> > comments.
>
> Thank you for comments!
> I think it could be. ah, spin_lock might be changed to spin_lock_irqsave()...
>

You are right. If we plan to execute this in both atomic and non-atomic
context, spin_lock_irqsave would make sure we are always busy-looping
with interrupts off.

Having spinlocks taken in _both_ interrupts on and off contexts leads to
higher interrupt latencies when the interrupt-off waits for an
interrupt-on thread.


> >> Thank you,
> >>
> > [...]
> >> Use map_vm_area() instead of vmap() in text_poke() for avoiding page allocation
> >> and delayed unmapping.
> >>
> >> Signed-off-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@redhat.com>
> >> ---
> >> arch/x86/include/asm/alternative.h | 1 +
> >> arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c | 25 ++++++++++++++++++++-----
> >> init/main.c | 3 +++
> >> 3 files changed, 24 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
> >>
> >> Index: linux-2.6/arch/x86/include/asm/alternative.h
> >> ===================================================================
> >> --- linux-2.6.orig/arch/x86/include/asm/alternative.h
> >> +++ linux-2.6/arch/x86/include/asm/alternative.h
> >> @@ -177,6 +177,7 @@ extern void add_nops(void *insns, unsign
> >> * The _early version expects the memory to already be RW.
> >> */
> >>
> >> +extern void text_poke_init(void);
> >> extern void *text_poke(void *addr, const void *opcode, size_t len);
> >> extern void *text_poke_early(void *addr, const void *opcode, size_t len);
> >>
> >> Index: linux-2.6/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
> >> ===================================================================
> >> --- linux-2.6.orig/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
> >> +++ linux-2.6/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
> >> @@ -485,6 +485,16 @@ void *text_poke_early(void *addr, const
> >> return addr;
> >> }
> >>
> >> +static struct vm_struct *text_poke_area[2];
> >> +static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(text_poke_lock);
> >> +
> >> +void __init text_poke_init(void)
> >> +{
> >> + text_poke_area[0] = get_vm_area(PAGE_SIZE, VM_ALLOC);
> >> + text_poke_area[1] = get_vm_area(2 * PAGE_SIZE, VM_ALLOC);
> >
> > Why is this text_poke_area[1] 2 * PAGE_SIZE in size ? I would have
> > thought that text_poke_area[0] would be PAGE_SIZE, text_poke_area[1]
> > also be PAGE_SIZE, and that the sum of both would be 2 * PAGE_SIZE..
>
> Unfortunately, current map_vm_area() tries to map the size of vm_area,
> this means, you can't use 2page-size vm_area for mapping just 1 page...
> (or maybe, we can set pages[1] = pages[0] when 2nd page doesn't exist)
>

OK, given we sometimes have to map only a single page (e.g. at the end
of a text section), we really need both 1 and 2 pages mapping. So I
think you solution is good.

>
> >> + BUG_ON(!text_poke_area[0] || !text_poke_area[1]);
> >> +}
> >> +
> >> /**
> >> * text_poke - Update instructions on a live kernel
> >> * @addr: address to modify
> >> @@ -501,8 +511,9 @@ void *__kprobes text_poke(void *addr, co
> >> unsigned long flags;
> >> char *vaddr;
> >> int nr_pages = 2;
> >> - struct page *pages[2];
> >> - int i;
> >> + struct page *pages[2], **pgp = pages;
> >
> > Hrm, why do you need **pgp ? Could you simply pass &pages to map_vm_area ?
>
> As you know, pages means just the address(value) of an array, so you can't
> get the address of the address...(pages and &pages are same.)
>
> int array[2];
> printf("%p, %p",array, &array);
>
> please try it :)
>
> And actually, map_vm_area() requires the address of a pointer.

Ah yes, thanks for the explanation.

After changing the spinlock/irqsave, I think that patch would be good to
merge. And then Steve could use text_poke within stop_machine if he
likes.

Mathieu

> ---
> int map_vm_area(struct vm_struct *area, pgprot_t prot, struct page ***pages)
> {
> unsigned long addr = (unsigned long)area->addr;
> unsigned long end = addr + area->size - PAGE_SIZE;
> int err;
>
> err = vmap_page_range(addr, end, prot, *pages);
> if (err > 0) {
> *pages += err;
> ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Here, it tries to add err(=number of mapped pages)
> to the pages pointer!
> err = 0;
> }
>
> return err;
> }
> ---
>
>
> >
> > Thanks,
> >
> > Mathieu
> >
> >> + int i, ret;
> >> + struct vm_struct *vma;
> >>
> >> if (!core_kernel_text((unsigned long)addr)) {
> >> pages[0] = vmalloc_to_page(addr);
> >> @@ -515,12 +526,16 @@ void *__kprobes text_poke(void *addr, co
> >> BUG_ON(!pages[0]);
> >> if (!pages[1])
> >> nr_pages = 1;
> >> - vaddr = vmap(pages, nr_pages, VM_MAP, PAGE_KERNEL);
> >> - BUG_ON(!vaddr);
> >> + spin_lock(&text_poke_lock);
> >> + vma = text_poke_area[nr_pages-1];
> >> + ret = map_vm_area(vma, PAGE_KERNEL, &pgp);
> >> + BUG_ON(ret);
> >> + vaddr = vma->addr;
> >> local_irq_save(flags);
> >> memcpy(&vaddr[(unsigned long)addr & ~PAGE_MASK], opcode, len);
> >> local_irq_restore(flags);
> >> - vunmap(vaddr);
> >> + unmap_kernel_range((unsigned long)vma->addr, (unsigned long)vma->size);
> >> + spin_unlock(&text_poke_lock);
> >> sync_core();
> >> /* Could also do a CLFLUSH here to speed up CPU recovery; but
> >> that causes hangs on some VIA CPUs. */
> >> @@ -528,3 +543,4 @@ void *__kprobes text_poke(void *addr, co
> >> BUG_ON(((char *)addr)[i] != ((char *)opcode)[i]);
> >> return addr;
> >> }
> >> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(text_poke);
> >> Index: linux-2.6/init/main.c
> >> ===================================================================
> >> --- linux-2.6.orig/init/main.c
> >> +++ linux-2.6/init/main.c
> >> @@ -676,6 +676,9 @@ asmlinkage void __init start_kernel(void
> >> taskstats_init_early();
> >> delayacct_init();
> >>
> >> +#ifdef CONFIG_X86
> >> + text_poke_init();
> >> +#endif
> >> check_bugs();
> >>
> >> acpi_early_init(); /* before LAPIC and SMP init */
> >
> >
>
> --
> Masami Hiramatsu
>
> Software Engineer
> Hitachi Computer Products (America) Inc.
> Software Solutions Division
>
> e-mail: mhiramat@redhat.com
>

--
Mathieu Desnoyers
OpenPGP key fingerprint: 8CD5 52C3 8E3C 4140 715F BA06 3F25 A8FE 3BAE 9A68


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