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SubjectRe: [RFC mm][PATCH 2/5] percpu cached mm counter
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Hi, Kame.

It looks good than older one. :)

On Thu, Dec 10, 2009 at 4:34 PM, KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
<kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> wrote:
> From: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
>
> Now, mm's counter information is updated by atomic_long_xxx() functions if
> USE_SPLIT_PTLOCKS is defined. This causes cache-miss when page faults happens
> simultaneously in prural cpus. (Almost all process-shared objects is...)
>
> Considering accounting per-mm page usage more, one of problems is cost of
> this counter.
>
> This patch implements per-cpu mm cache. This per-cpu cache is loosely
> synchronized with mm's counter. Current design is..
>
>  - prepare per-cpu object curr_mmc. curr_mmc containes pointer to mm and
>    array of counters.
>  - At page fault,
>     * if curr_mmc.mm != NULL, update curr_mmc.mm counter.
>     * if curr_mmc.mm == NULL, fill curr_mmc.mm = current->mm and account 1.
>  - At schedule()
>     * if curr_mm.mm != NULL, synchronize and invalidate cached information.
>     * if curr_mmc.mm == NULL, nothing to do.
>
> By this.
>  - no atomic ops, which tends to cache-miss, under page table lock.
>  - mm->counters are synchronized when schedule() is called.
>  - No bad thing to read-side.
>
> Concern:
>  - added cost to schedule().
>
> Micro Benchmark:
>  measured the number of page faults with 2 threads on 2 sockets.
>
>  Before:
>   Performance counter stats for './multi-fault 2' (5 runs):
>
>       45122351  page-faults                ( +-   1.125% )
>      989608571  cache-references           ( +-   1.198% )
>      205308558  cache-misses               ( +-   0.159% )
>   29263096648639268  bus-cycles                 ( +-   0.004% )
>
>   60.003427500  seconds time elapsed   ( +-   0.003% )
>
>  After:
>    Performance counter stats for './multi-fault 2' (5 runs):
>
>       46997471  page-faults                ( +-   0.720% )
>     1004100076  cache-references           ( +-   0.734% )
>      180959964  cache-misses               ( +-   0.374% )
>   29263437363580464  bus-cycles                 ( +-   0.002% )
>
>   60.003315683  seconds time elapsed   ( +-   0.004% )
>
>   cachemiss/page faults is reduced from 4.55 miss/faults to be 3.85miss/faults
>
>   This microbencmark doesn't do usual behavior (page fault ->madvise(DONTNEED)
>   but reducing cache-miss cost sounds good to me even if it's very small.
>
> Changelog 2009/12/09:
>  - loosely update curr_mmc.mm at the 1st page fault.
>  - removed hooks in tick.(update_process_times)
>  - exported curr_mmc and check curr_mmc.mm directly.
>
> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
> ---
>  include/linux/mm.h       |   37 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  include/linux/mm_types.h |   12 +++++++++
>  kernel/exit.c            |    3 +-
>  kernel/sched.c           |    6 ++++
>  mm/memory.c              |   60 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------
>  5 files changed, 108 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)
>
> Index: mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/include/linux/mm_types.h
> ===================================================================
> --- mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8.orig/include/linux/mm_types.h
> +++ mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/include/linux/mm_types.h
> @@ -297,4 +297,16 @@ struct mm_struct {
>  /* Future-safe accessor for struct mm_struct's cpu_vm_mask. */
>  #define mm_cpumask(mm) (&(mm)->cpu_vm_mask)
>
> +#if USE_SPLIT_PTLOCKS
> +/*
> + * percpu object used for caching thread->mm information.
> + */
> +struct pcp_mm_cache {
> +       struct mm_struct *mm;
> +       unsigned long counters[NR_MM_COUNTERS];
> +};
> +
> +DECLARE_PER_CPU(struct pcp_mm_cache, curr_mmc);
> +#endif
> +
>  #endif /* _LINUX_MM_TYPES_H */
> Index: mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/include/linux/mm.h
> ===================================================================
> --- mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8.orig/include/linux/mm.h
> +++ mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/include/linux/mm.h
> @@ -883,7 +883,16 @@ static inline void set_mm_counter(struct
>
>  static inline unsigned long get_mm_counter(struct mm_struct *mm, int member)
>  {
> -       return (unsigned long)atomic_long_read(&(mm)->counters[member]);
> +       long ret;
> +       /*
> +        * Because this counter is loosely synchronized with percpu cached
> +        * information, it's possible that value gets to be minus. For user's
> +        * convenience/sanity, avoid returning minus.
> +        */
> +       ret = atomic_long_read(&(mm)->counters[member]);
> +       if (unlikely(ret < 0))
> +               return 0;
> +       return (unsigned long)ret;
>  }

Now, your sync point is only task switching time.
So we can't show exact number if many counting of mm happens
in short time.(ie, before context switching).
It isn't matter?

>
>  static inline void add_mm_counter(struct mm_struct *mm, int member, long value)
> @@ -900,6 +909,25 @@ static inline void dec_mm_counter(struct
>  {
>        atomic_long_dec(&(mm)->counters[member]);
>  }
> +extern void __sync_mm_counters(struct mm_struct *mm);
> +/* Called under non-preemptable context, for syncing cached information */
> +static inline void sync_mm_counters_atomic(void)
> +{
> +       struct mm_struct *mm;
> +
> +       mm = percpu_read(curr_mmc.mm);
> +       if (mm) {
> +               __sync_mm_counters(mm);
> +               percpu_write(curr_mmc.mm, NULL);
> +       }
> +}
> +/* called at thread exit */
> +static inline void exit_mm_counters(void)
> +{
> +       preempt_disable();
> +       sync_mm_counters_atomic();
> +       preempt_enable();
> +}
>
>  #else  /* !USE_SPLIT_PTLOCKS */
>  /*
> @@ -931,6 +959,13 @@ static inline void dec_mm_counter(struct
>        mm->counters[member]--;
>  }
>
> +static inline void sync_mm_counters_atomic(void)
> +{
> +}
> +
> +static inline void exit_mm_counters(void)
> +{
> +}
>  #endif /* !USE_SPLIT_PTLOCKS */
>
>  #define get_mm_rss(mm)                                 \
> Index: mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/mm/memory.c
> ===================================================================
> --- mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8.orig/mm/memory.c
> +++ mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/mm/memory.c
> @@ -121,6 +121,50 @@ static int __init init_zero_pfn(void)
>  }
>  core_initcall(init_zero_pfn);
>
> +#if USE_SPLIT_PTLOCKS
> +
> +DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct pcp_mm_cache, curr_mmc);
> +
> +void __sync_mm_counters(struct mm_struct *mm)
> +{
> +       struct pcp_mm_cache *mmc = &per_cpu(curr_mmc, smp_processor_id());
> +       int i;
> +
> +       for (i = 0; i < NR_MM_COUNTERS; i++) {

The cost depends on NR_MM_COUNTER.
Now, it's low but we might add the more counts in pcp_mm_cache.
Then, If we don't change any count in many counts, we don't need to loop
unnecessary. we will remove this with change flag of pcp_mm_cache.
But, change flag cmp/updating overhead is also ugly. So, it would be rather
overkill in now. How about leaving the NOTE ?

/* NOTE :
* We have to rethink for reducing overhead if we start to
* add many counts in pcp_mm_cache.
*/
> +               if (mmc->counters[i] != 0) {
> +                       atomic_long_add(mmc->counters[i], &mm->counters[i]);
> +                       mmc->counters[i] = 0;
> +               }
> +       }
> +       return;
> +}
> +/*
> + * This add_mm_counter_fast() works well only when it's expexted that

expexted => expected :)

> + * mm == current->mm. So, use of this function is limited under memory.c
> + * This add_mm_counter_fast() is called under page table lock.
> + */
> +static void add_mm_counter_fast(struct mm_struct *mm, int member, int val)
> +{
> +       struct mm_struct *cached = percpu_read(curr_mmc.mm);
> +
> +       if (likely(cached == mm)) { /* fast path */
> +               percpu_add(curr_mmc.counters[member], val);
> +       } else if (mm == current->mm) { /* 1st page fault in this period */
> +               percpu_write(curr_mmc.mm, mm);
> +               percpu_write(curr_mmc.counters[member], val);
> +       } else /* page fault via side-path context (get_user_pages()) */
> +               add_mm_counter(mm, member, val);
> +}
> +
> +#define inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, member)        add_mm_counter_fast(mm, member, 1)
> +#define dec_mm_counter_fast(mm, member)        add_mm_counter_fast(mm, member, -1)
> +#else
> +
> +#define inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, member)        inc_mm_counter(mm, member)
> +#define dec_mm_counter_fast(mm, member)        dec_mm_counter(mm, member)
> +
> +#endif
> +
>  /*
>  * If a p?d_bad entry is found while walking page tables, report
>  * the error, before resetting entry to p?d_none.  Usually (but
> @@ -1541,7 +1585,7 @@ static int insert_page(struct vm_area_st
>
>        /* Ok, finally just insert the thing.. */
>        get_page(page);
> -       inc_mm_counter(mm, MM_FILEPAGES);
> +       inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_FILEPAGES);
>        page_add_file_rmap(page);
>        set_pte_at(mm, addr, pte, mk_pte(page, prot));
>
> @@ -2177,11 +2221,11 @@ gotten:
>        if (likely(pte_same(*page_table, orig_pte))) {
>                if (old_page) {
>                        if (!PageAnon(old_page)) {
> -                               dec_mm_counter(mm, MM_FILEPAGES);
> -                               inc_mm_counter(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
> +                               dec_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_FILEPAGES);
> +                               inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
>                        }
>                } else
> -                       inc_mm_counter(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
> +                       inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
>                flush_cache_page(vma, address, pte_pfn(orig_pte));
>                entry = mk_pte(new_page, vma->vm_page_prot);
>                entry = maybe_mkwrite(pte_mkdirty(entry), vma);
> @@ -2614,7 +2658,7 @@ static int do_swap_page(struct mm_struct
>         * discarded at swap_free().
>         */
>
> -       inc_mm_counter(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
> +       inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
>        pte = mk_pte(page, vma->vm_page_prot);
>        if ((flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE) && reuse_swap_page(page)) {
>                pte = maybe_mkwrite(pte_mkdirty(pte), vma);
> @@ -2698,7 +2742,7 @@ static int do_anonymous_page(struct mm_s
>        if (!pte_none(*page_table))
>                goto release;
>
> -       inc_mm_counter(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
> +       inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
>        page_add_new_anon_rmap(page, vma, address);
>  setpte:
>        set_pte_at(mm, address, page_table, entry);
> @@ -2852,10 +2896,10 @@ static int __do_fault(struct mm_struct *
>                if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE)
>                        entry = maybe_mkwrite(pte_mkdirty(entry), vma);
>                if (anon) {
> -                       inc_mm_counter(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
> +                       inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
>                        page_add_new_anon_rmap(page, vma, address);
>                } else {
> -                       inc_mm_counter(mm, MM_FILEPAGES);
> +                       inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_FILEPAGES);
>                        page_add_file_rmap(page);
>                        if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE) {
>                                dirty_page = page;
> Index: mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/kernel/sched.c
> ===================================================================
> --- mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8.orig/kernel/sched.c
> +++ mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/kernel/sched.c
> @@ -2858,6 +2858,7 @@ context_switch(struct rq *rq, struct tas
>        trace_sched_switch(rq, prev, next);
>        mm = next->mm;
>        oldmm = prev->active_mm;
> +
>        /*
>         * For paravirt, this is coupled with an exit in switch_to to
>         * combine the page table reload and the switch backend into
> @@ -5477,6 +5478,11 @@ need_resched_nonpreemptible:
>
>        if (sched_feat(HRTICK))
>                hrtick_clear(rq);
> +       /*
> +        * sync/invaldidate per-cpu cached mm related information
> +        * before taling rq->lock. (see include/linux/mm.h)

taling => taking

> +        */
> +       sync_mm_counters_atomic();

It's my above concern.
before the process schedule out, we could get the wrong info.
It's not realistic problem?


>
>        spin_lock_irq(&rq->lock);
>        update_rq_clock(rq);
> Index: mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/kernel/exit.c
> ===================================================================
> --- mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8.orig/kernel/exit.c
> +++ mmotm-2.6.32-Dec8/kernel/exit.c
> @@ -942,7 +942,8 @@ NORET_TYPE void do_exit(long code)
>                printk(KERN_INFO "note: %s[%d] exited with preempt_count %d\n",
>                                current->comm, task_pid_nr(current),
>                                preempt_count());
> -
> +       /* synchronize per-cpu cached mm related information before account */
> +       exit_mm_counters();
>        acct_update_integrals(tsk);
>
>        group_dead = atomic_dec_and_test(&tsk->signal->live);
>
>



--
Kind regards,
Minchan Kim
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