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SubjectRe: [PATCH-RFC] cfq: Disable low_latency by default for 2.6.32
Date
On Fri, Nov 27, 2009 19:52:34, Mel Gorman wrote:
: > On Fri, Nov 27, 2009 at 07:14:41PM +0100, Corrado Zoccolo wrote:
> > On Fri, Nov 27, 2009 at 4:58 PM, Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> wrote:
> > > On Fri, Nov 27, 2009 at 01:03:29PM +0100, Corrado Zoccolo wrote:
> > >> On Fri, Nov 27, 2009 at 12:44 PM, Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> wrote:
> > >
> > > How would one go about selecting the proper ratio at which to disable
> > > the low_latency logic?
> >
> > Can we measure the dirty ratio when the allocation failures start to
> > happen?
>
> Would the number of dirty pages in the page allocation failure message to
> kern.log be enough? You won't get them all because of printk suppress but
> it's something. Alternatively, tell me exactly what stats from /proc you
> want and I'll stick a monitor on there. Assuming you want nr_dirty vs total
> number of pages though, the monitor tends to execute too late to be useful.
>
Since I wanted to go deeper in the understanding, but my system is healty,
I devised a measure of fragmentation, and wanted to chart it to understand
what was going wrong. A perl script that produces gnuplot compatible output is provided:

use strict;
select(STDOUT);
$|=1;
do {
open (my $bf, "< /proc/buddyinfo") or die;
open (my $up, "< /proc/uptime") or die;
my $now = <$up>;
chomp $now;
print $now;
while(<$bf>) {
next unless /Node (\d+), zone\s+([a-zA-Z]+)\s+(.+)$/;
my ($frag, $tot, $val) = (0,0,1);
map { $frag += $_; $tot += $val * $_; $val <<= 1;} ($3 =~ /\d+/g);
print "\t", $frag/$tot;
}
print "\n";
sleep 1;
} while(1);
My definition of fragmentation is just the number of fragments / the number of pages:
* It is 1 only when all pages are of order 0
* it is 2/3 on a random marking of used pages (each page has probability 0.5 of being used)
* to be sure that a order k allocation succeeds, the fragmentation should be <= 2^-k

I observed the mainline kernel during normal usage, and found that:
* the fragmentation is very low after boot (< 1%).
* it tends to increase when memory is freed, and to decrease when memory is allocated (since the kernel usually performs order 0 allocations).
* high memory fragmentation increases first, and only when all high memory is used, normal memory starts to fragment.
* when the page cache is big enough (so memory pressure is high for the allocator), the fragmentation starts to fluctuate a lot, sometimes exceeding 2/3 (up to 0.8).
* the only way to make the fragmentation return to sane values after it enters fluctuation is to do a sync & drop caches. Even in this case, it will go around 14%, that is still quite high.
>
> Two major differences. 1, the previous non-high-order tests had also
> run sysbench and iozone so the starting conditions are different. I had
> disabled those tests to get some of the high-order figures before I went
> offline. However, the starting conditions are probably not as important as
> the fact that kswapd is working to free order-2 pages and staying awake
> until watermarks are reached. kswapd working harder is probably making a
> big difference.
>
From my observation, having run a program that fills page cache before a test has a lot of impact to the fragmentation.
We (block layer guys) tend to do a sync & drop cache before starting any test, so this can explain why our optimizations work best when machine has plenty of free memory.
On the other hand, machines with plenty of memory should be the norm now, even for desktops.

>
> I made a mistake in the script that was generating the summary. I neglected
> to take into account printk rate suppressions. When they are taken into
> account, the first round of figures look like
>
> desktop-net-gitk
> high-with low-latency low-latency
> high-without low-latency block-2.6.33 async-rampup
> low-latency min 861.03 ( 0.00%) 467.83 (45.67%) 1185.51
> (-37.69%) 303.43 (64.76%) mean 866.60 ( 0.00%) 616.28
> (28.89%) 1201.82 (-38.68%) 459.69 (46.96%) stddev 4.39 (
> 0.00%) 86.90 (-1877.46%) 23.63 (-437.75%) 92.75 (-2010.76%) max
> 872.56 ( 0.00%) 679.36 (22.14%) 1242.63 (-42.41%) 537.31
> (38.42%) pgalloc-fail 65 ( 0.00%) 10 (84.62%) 293
> (-350.77%) 20 (69.23%)
>
> So the async-rampup is getting smacked very hard with allocation failures
> in the high-order case. With the three additional applied for allocation
> failures, the figures look like
>
> desktop-net-gitk
> atomics-with low-latency low-latency
> atomics-without low-latency block-2.6.33 async-rampup
> low-latency min 641.12 ( 0.00%) 627.91 ( 2.06%) 1254.75
> (-95.71%) 375.05 (41.50%) mean 743.61 ( 0.00%) 631.20
> (15.12%) 1272.70 (-71.15%) 389.71 (47.59%) stddev 60.30 (
> 0.00%) 2.53 (95.80%) 10.64 (82.35%) 22.38 (62.89%) max
> 793.85 ( 0.00%) 633.76 (20.17%) 1281.65 (-61.45%) 428.41 (46.03%)
> pgalloc-fail 3 ( 0.00%) 2 ( 0.00%) 27 ( 0.00%) 0
> ( 0.00%)
>
> So again, async-rampup is getting smacked in terms of allocation failures
> although the three additional patches help a lot. This is a real pity
> because it looked nice in the tests involving no high-order allocations for
> the network.
Ok. Forget that patch for now. Maybe we can test it with 2.6.33 to see if it fits.
On the other hand, I saw that the problems with high order allocations started
around 2.6.31, where we didn't have any low_latency patch. So I don't think the
solution to the problem is in the block layer. A slightly slower or faster writeback
shouldn't cause a DoS like situation as the one encountered with your network driver.

> > Moreover, it will improve some workloads, but penalize others.
>
> It really does appear to hurt a lot when the machine is kinda low on
> memory though. That is a fairly common situation with a desktop loaded
> up with random apps. Well..... by common, I mean I hit that situation a
> lot on my laptop. I don't hit it on server workloads because I make sure
> the machines are not overloaded.
This is why we have it as a tunable. If your workload is negatively affected,
you can switch it off. But make sure to test it thoroughly, because even if
you found a 2x slowdown in a particular circumstance, it can gain 10x
speedup (see http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0911.1/01848.html)
in others.

>
> > Your 3 patches, though, seem to improve the situation also for
> > low_latency enabled, both for performance and allocation failures (25
> > to 3). Having those 3 patches with low_latency enabled seems better,
> > since it won't penalize the workloads that are benefited by
> > low_latency (if you add a sequential read to your test, you should see
> > a big difference).
>
> This is true and I would like to see them merged. However, this close to
> release, with Jens unhappiness with the explanation of why
> congestion_wait() changes made a difference and Andrew feeling there
> wasn't enough cause to merge them, I'm doubtful it'll happen. Will see
> Monday what the story is.

After a 1day study of the VM, I found an other way to improve the fragmentation.
With the patch below, the fragmentation stays below 2/3 even when memory pressure is high,
and decreases overtime, if the system is lightly used, even without dropping caches.
Moreover, the precious zones (Normal, DMA) are kept at a lower fragmentation, since high order
allocations are usually serviced by the other zones (more likely than with mainline allocator).

The idea is to have 2 freelists for each zone.
The free_list_0 has the pages that are less likely to cause an higher-order merge, since the buddy of their compound is not free.
The free_list_1 contains the other ones.
When expanding, we put pages into free_list_1. When freeing, we put them in the proper one by checking the buddy of the compound.
And when extracting, we always extract from free_list_0 first, and fall back on the other if the first is empty.
In this way, we keep free longer the pages that are more likely to cause a big merge.
Consequently we tend to aggregate the long-living allocations on a subset of the compounds, reducing the fragmentation.

It can, though, slow down allocation and reclaim, so someone more knowledgeable than me should have a look.

Signed-off-by: Corrado Zoccolo <czoccolo@gmail.com>

diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
index 6f75617..6427361 100644
--- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
+++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
@@ -55,7 +55,8 @@ static inline int get_pageblock_migratetype(struct page *page)
}

struct free_area {
- struct list_head free_list[MIGRATE_TYPES];
+ struct list_head free_list_0[MIGRATE_TYPES];
+ struct list_head free_list_1[MIGRATE_TYPES];
unsigned long nr_free;
};

diff --git a/kernel/kexec.c b/kernel/kexec.c
index f336e21..aee5ef5 100644
--- a/kernel/kexec.c
+++ b/kernel/kexec.c
@@ -1404,13 +1404,15 @@ static int __init crash_save_vmcoreinfo_init(void)
VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(zone, free_area);
VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(zone, vm_stat);
VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(zone, spanned_pages);
- VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(free_area, free_list);
+ VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(free_area, free_list_0);
+ VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(free_area, free_list_1);
VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(list_head, next);
VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(list_head, prev);
VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(vm_struct, addr);
VMCOREINFO_LENGTH(zone.free_area, MAX_ORDER);
log_buf_kexec_setup();
- VMCOREINFO_LENGTH(free_area.free_list, MIGRATE_TYPES);
+ VMCOREINFO_LENGTH(free_area.free_list_0, MIGRATE_TYPES);
+ VMCOREINFO_LENGTH(free_area.free_list_1, MIGRATE_TYPES);
VMCOREINFO_NUMBER(NR_FREE_PAGES);
VMCOREINFO_NUMBER(PG_lru);
VMCOREINFO_NUMBER(PG_private);
diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index cdcedf6..5f488d8 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -451,6 +451,8 @@ static inline void __free_one_page(struct page *page,
int migratetype)
{
unsigned long page_idx;
+ unsigned long combined_idx;
+ bool high_order_free = false;

if (unlikely(PageCompound(page)))
if (unlikely(destroy_compound_page(page, order)))
@@ -464,7 +466,6 @@ static inline void __free_one_page(struct page *page,
VM_BUG_ON(bad_range(zone, page));

while (order < MAX_ORDER-1) {
- unsigned long combined_idx;
struct page *buddy;

buddy = __page_find_buddy(page, page_idx, order);
@@ -481,8 +482,21 @@ static inline void __free_one_page(struct page *page,
order++;
}
set_page_order(page, order);
- list_add(&page->lru,
- &zone->free_area[order].free_list[migratetype]);
+
+ if (order < MAX_ORDER-1) {
+ struct page *parent_page, *ppage_buddy;
+ combined_idx = __find_combined_index(page_idx, order);
+ parent_page = page + combined_idx - page_idx;
+ ppage_buddy = __page_find_buddy(parent_page, combined_idx, order + 1);
+ high_order_free = page_is_buddy(parent_page, ppage_buddy, order + 1);
+ }
+
+ if (high_order_free)
+ list_add(&page->lru,
+ &zone->free_area[order].free_list_1[migratetype]);
+ else
+ list_add(&page->lru,
+ &zone->free_area[order].free_list_0[migratetype]);
zone->free_area[order].nr_free++;
}

@@ -663,7 +677,7 @@ static inline void expand(struct zone *zone, struct page *page,
high--;
size >>= 1;
VM_BUG_ON(bad_range(zone, &page[size]));
- list_add(&page[size].lru, &area->free_list[migratetype]);
+ list_add(&page[size].lru, &area->free_list_1[migratetype]);
area->nr_free++;
set_page_order(&page[size], high);
}
@@ -723,12 +737,19 @@ struct page *__rmqueue_smallest(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order,

/* Find a page of the appropriate size in the preferred list */
for (current_order = order; current_order < MAX_ORDER; ++current_order) {
+ bool fl0, fl1;
area = &(zone->free_area[current_order]);
- if (list_empty(&area->free_list[migratetype]))
+ fl0 = list_empty(&area->free_list_0[migratetype]);
+ fl1 = list_empty(&area->free_list_1[migratetype]);
+ if (fl0 && fl1)
continue;

- page = list_entry(area->free_list[migratetype].next,
- struct page, lru);
+ if (fl0)
+ page = list_entry(area->free_list_1[migratetype].next,
+ struct page, lru);
+ else
+ page = list_entry(area->free_list_0[migratetype].next,
+ struct page, lru);
list_del(&page->lru);
rmv_page_order(page);
area->nr_free--;
@@ -792,7 +813,7 @@ static int move_freepages(struct zone *zone,
order = page_order(page);
list_del(&page->lru);
list_add(&page->lru,
- &zone->free_area[order].free_list[migratetype]);
+ &zone->free_area[order].free_list_0[migratetype]);
page += 1 << order;
pages_moved += 1 << order;
}
@@ -845,6 +866,7 @@ __rmqueue_fallback(struct zone *zone, int order, int start_migratetype)
for (current_order = MAX_ORDER-1; current_order >= order;
--current_order) {
for (i = 0; i < MIGRATE_TYPES - 1; i++) {
+ bool fl0, fl1;
migratetype = fallbacks[start_migratetype][i];

/* MIGRATE_RESERVE handled later if necessary */
@@ -852,11 +874,20 @@ __rmqueue_fallback(struct zone *zone, int order, int start_migratetype)
continue;

area = &(zone->free_area[current_order]);
- if (list_empty(&area->free_list[migratetype]))
+
+
+ fl0 = list_empty(&area->free_list_0[migratetype]);
+ fl1 = list_empty(&area->free_list_1[migratetype]);
+
+ if (fl0 && fl1)
continue;

- page = list_entry(area->free_list[migratetype].next,
- struct page, lru);
+ if (fl0)
+ page = list_entry(area->free_list_1[migratetype].next,
+ struct page, lru);
+ else
+ page = list_entry(area->free_list_0[migratetype].next,
+ struct page, lru);
area->nr_free--;

/*
@@ -1061,7 +1092,14 @@ void mark_free_pages(struct zone *zone)
}

for_each_migratetype_order(order, t) {
- list_for_each(curr, &zone->free_area[order].free_list[t]) {
+ list_for_each(curr, &zone->free_area[order].free_list_0[t]) {
+ unsigned long i;
+
+ pfn = page_to_pfn(list_entry(curr, struct page, lru));
+ for (i = 0; i < (1UL << order); i++)
+ swsusp_set_page_free(pfn_to_page(pfn + i));
+ }
+ list_for_each(curr, &zone->free_area[order].free_list_1[t]) {
unsigned long i;

pfn = page_to_pfn(list_entry(curr, struct page, lru));
@@ -2993,7 +3031,8 @@ static void __meminit zone_init_free_lists(struct zone *zone)
{
int order, t;
for_each_migratetype_order(order, t) {
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&zone->free_area[order].free_list[t]);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&zone->free_area[order].free_list_0[t]);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&zone->free_area[order].free_list_1[t]);
zone->free_area[order].nr_free = 0;
}
}
diff --git a/mm/vmstat.c b/mm/vmstat.c
index c81321f..613ef1e 100644
--- a/mm/vmstat.c
+++ b/mm/vmstat.c
@@ -468,7 +468,9 @@ static void pagetypeinfo_showfree_print(struct seq_file *m,

area = &(zone->free_area[order]);

- list_for_each(curr, &area->free_list[mtype])
+ list_for_each(curr, &area->free_list_0[mtype])
+ freecount++;
+ list_for_each(curr, &area->free_list_1[mtype])
freecount++;
seq_printf(m, "%6lu ", freecount);
}


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