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SubjectRe: [PATCH -tip v5 07/10] kprobes/x86: Support kprobes jump optimization on x86
On Mon, Nov 23, 2009 at 06:22:11PM -0500, Masami Hiramatsu wrote:
> Introduce x86 arch-specific optimization code, which supports both of
> x86-32 and x86-64.
>
> This code also supports safety checking, which decodes whole of a function
> in which probe is inserted, and checks following conditions before
> optimization:
> - The optimized instructions which will be replaced by a jump instruction
> don't straddle the function boundary.
> - There is no indirect jump instruction, because it will jumps into
> the address range which is replaced by jump operand.
> - There is no jump/loop instruction which jumps into the address range
> which is replaced by jump operand.
> - Don't optimize kprobes if it is in functions into which fixup code will
> jumps.
>
> This uses stop_machine() for corss modifying code from int3 to jump.
> It doesn't allow us to modify code on NMI/SMI path. However, since
> kprobes itself doesn't support NMI/SMI code probing, it's not a
> problem.
>
> Changes in v5:
> - Introduce stop_machine-based jump replacing.
>
> Signed-off-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@redhat.com>
> Cc: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@in.ibm.com>
> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
> Cc: Jim Keniston <jkenisto@us.ibm.com>
> Cc: Srikar Dronamraju <srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org>
> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com>
> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
> Cc: Anders Kaseorg <andersk@ksplice.com>
> Cc: Tim Abbott <tabbott@ksplice.com>
> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
> Cc: Jason Baron <jbaron@redhat.com>
> Cc: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca>
> ---
>
> arch/x86/Kconfig | 1
> arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h | 29 +++
> arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c | 457 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> 3 files changed, 465 insertions(+), 22 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
> index 17abcfa..af0313e 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
> +++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
> @@ -31,6 +31,7 @@ config X86
> select ARCH_WANT_FRAME_POINTERS
> select HAVE_DMA_ATTRS
> select HAVE_KRETPROBES
> + select HAVE_OPTPROBES
> select HAVE_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
> select HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
> select HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACER
> diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h
> index eaec8ea..4ffa345 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h
> +++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/kprobes.h
> @@ -33,6 +33,9 @@ struct kprobe;
> typedef u8 kprobe_opcode_t;
> #define BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION 0xcc
> #define RELATIVEJUMP_OPCODE 0xe9
> +#define RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE 5
> +#define RELATIVECALL_OPCODE 0xe8
> +#define RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE 4
> #define MAX_INSN_SIZE 16
> #define MAX_STACK_SIZE 64
> #define MIN_STACK_SIZE(ADDR) \
> @@ -44,6 +47,17 @@ typedef u8 kprobe_opcode_t;
>
> #define flush_insn_slot(p) do { } while (0)
>
> +/* optinsn template addresses */
> +extern kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_entry;
> +extern kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_val;
> +extern kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_call;
> +extern kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_end;
> +#define MAX_OPTIMIZED_LENGTH (MAX_INSN_SIZE + RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE)
> +#define MAX_OPTINSN_SIZE \
> + (((unsigned long)&optprobe_template_end - \
> + (unsigned long)&optprobe_template_entry) + \
> + MAX_OPTIMIZED_LENGTH + RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE)
> +
> extern const int kretprobe_blacklist_size;
>
> void arch_remove_kprobe(struct kprobe *p);
> @@ -64,6 +78,21 @@ struct arch_specific_insn {
> int boostable;
> };
>
> +struct arch_optimized_insn {
> + /* copy of the original instructions */
> + kprobe_opcode_t copied_insn[RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE];
> + /* detour code buffer */
> + kprobe_opcode_t *insn;
> + /* the size of instructions copied to detour code buffer */
> + size_t size;
> +};
> +
> +/* Return true (!0) if optinsn is prepared for optimization. */
> +static inline int arch_prepared_optinsn(struct arch_optimized_insn *optinsn)
> +{
> + return optinsn->size;
> +}
> +
> struct prev_kprobe {
> struct kprobe *kp;
> unsigned long status;
> diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c b/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c
> index 73ac21e..6d81c11 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/kprobes.c
> @@ -49,6 +49,7 @@
> #include <linux/module.h>
> #include <linux/kdebug.h>
> #include <linux/kallsyms.h>
> +#include <linux/stop_machine.h>
>
> #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
> #include <asm/desc.h>
> @@ -106,16 +107,21 @@ struct kretprobe_blackpoint kretprobe_blacklist[] = {
> };
> const int kretprobe_blacklist_size = ARRAY_SIZE(kretprobe_blacklist);
>
> -/* Insert a jump instruction at address 'from', which jumps to address 'to'.*/
> -static void __kprobes set_jmp_op(void *from, void *to)
> +static void __kprobes __synthesize_relative_insn(void *from, void *to, u8 op)
> {
> - struct __arch_jmp_op {
> - char op;
> + struct __arch_relative_insn {
> + u8 op;
> s32 raddr;
> - } __attribute__((packed)) * jop;
> - jop = (struct __arch_jmp_op *)from;
> - jop->raddr = (s32)((long)(to) - ((long)(from) + 5));
> - jop->op = RELATIVEJUMP_OPCODE;
> + } __attribute__((packed)) *insn;
> + insn = (struct __arch_relative_insn *)from;
> + insn->raddr = (s32)((long)(to) - ((long)(from) + 5));
> + insn->op = op;
> +}
> +
> +/* Insert a jump instruction at address 'from', which jumps to address 'to'.*/
> +static void __kprobes synthesize_reljump(void *from, void *to)
> +{
> + __synthesize_relative_insn(from, to, RELATIVEJUMP_OPCODE);
> }
>
> /*
> @@ -202,7 +208,7 @@ static int recover_probed_instruction(kprobe_opcode_t *buf, unsigned long addr)
> /*
> * Basically, kp->ainsn.insn has an original instruction.
> * However, RIP-relative instruction can not do single-stepping
> - * at different place, fix_riprel() tweaks the displacement of
> + * at different place, __copy_instruction() tweaks the displacement of
> * that instruction. In that case, we can't recover the instruction
> * from the kp->ainsn.insn.
> *
> @@ -284,21 +290,37 @@ static int __kprobes is_IF_modifier(kprobe_opcode_t *insn)
> }
>
> /*
> - * Adjust the displacement if the instruction uses the %rip-relative
> - * addressing mode.
> + * Copy an instruction and adjust the displacement if the instruction
> + * uses the %rip-relative addressing mode.
> * If it does, Return the address of the 32-bit displacement word.
> * If not, return null.
> * Only applicable to 64-bit x86.
> */
> -static void __kprobes fix_riprel(struct kprobe *p)
> +static int __kprobes __copy_instruction(u8 *dest, u8 *src, int recover)
> {
> -#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> struct insn insn;
> - kernel_insn_init(&insn, p->ainsn.insn);
> + int ret;
> + kprobe_opcode_t buf[MAX_INSN_SIZE];
> +
> + kernel_insn_init(&insn, src);
> + if (recover) {
> + insn_get_opcode(&insn);
> + if (insn.opcode.bytes[0] == BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION) {
> + ret = recover_probed_instruction(buf,
> + (unsigned long)src);
> + if (ret)
> + return 0;
> + kernel_insn_init(&insn, buf);
> + }
> + }
> + insn_get_length(&insn);
> + memcpy(dest, insn.kaddr, insn.length);
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> if (insn_rip_relative(&insn)) {
> s64 newdisp;
> u8 *disp;
> + kernel_insn_init(&insn, dest);
> insn_get_displacement(&insn);
> /*
> * The copied instruction uses the %rip-relative addressing
> @@ -312,20 +334,23 @@ static void __kprobes fix_riprel(struct kprobe *p)
> * extension of the original signed 32-bit displacement would
> * have given.
> */
> - newdisp = (u8 *) p->addr + (s64) insn.displacement.value -
> - (u8 *) p->ainsn.insn;
> + newdisp = (u8 *) src + (s64) insn.displacement.value -
> + (u8 *) dest;
> BUG_ON((s64) (s32) newdisp != newdisp); /* Sanity check. */
> - disp = (u8 *) p->ainsn.insn + insn_offset_displacement(&insn);
> + disp = (u8 *) dest + insn_offset_displacement(&insn);
> *(s32 *) disp = (s32) newdisp;
> }
> #endif
> + return insn.length;
> }
>
> static void __kprobes arch_copy_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
> {
> - memcpy(p->ainsn.insn, p->addr, MAX_INSN_SIZE * sizeof(kprobe_opcode_t));
> -
> - fix_riprel(p);
> + /*
> + * Copy an instruction without recovering int3, because it will be
> + * put by another subsystem.
> + */
> + __copy_instruction(p->ainsn.insn, p->addr, 0);
>
> if (can_boost(p->addr))
> p->ainsn.boostable = 0;
> @@ -414,9 +439,20 @@ void __kprobes arch_prepare_kretprobe(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
> *sara = (unsigned long) &kretprobe_trampoline;
> }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_OPTPROBES
> +static int __kprobes setup_detour_execution(struct kprobe *p,
> + struct pt_regs *regs,
> + int reenter);
> +#else
> +#define setup_detour_execution(p, regs, reenter) (0)
> +#endif
> +
> static void __kprobes setup_singlestep(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs,
> struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb, int reenter)
> {
> + if (setup_detour_execution(p, regs, reenter))
> + return;
> +
> #if !defined(CONFIG_PREEMPT) || defined(CONFIG_FREEZER)
> if (p->ainsn.boostable == 1 && !p->post_handler) {
> /* Boost up -- we can execute copied instructions directly */
> @@ -812,8 +848,8 @@ static void __kprobes resume_execution(struct kprobe *p,
> * These instructions can be executed directly if it
> * jumps back to correct address.
> */
> - set_jmp_op((void *)regs->ip,
> - (void *)orig_ip + (regs->ip - copy_ip));
> + synthesize_reljump((void *)regs->ip,
> + (void *)orig_ip + (regs->ip - copy_ip));
> p->ainsn.boostable = 1;
> } else {
> p->ainsn.boostable = -1;
> @@ -1040,6 +1076,383 @@ int __kprobes longjmp_break_handler(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
> return 0;
> }
>
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_OPTPROBES
> +
> +/* Insert a call instruction at address 'from', which calls address 'to'.*/
> +static void __kprobes synthesize_relcall(void *from, void *to)
> +{
> + __synthesize_relative_insn(from, to, RELATIVECALL_OPCODE);
> +}
> +
> +/* Insert a move instruction which sets a pointer to eax/rdi (1st arg). */
> +static void __kprobes synthesize_set_arg1(kprobe_opcode_t *addr,
> + unsigned long val)
> +{
> +#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> + *addr++ = 0x48;
> + *addr++ = 0xbf;
> +#else
> + *addr++ = 0xb8;
> +#endif
> + *(unsigned long *)addr = val;
> +}
> +
> +void __kprobes kprobes_optinsn_template_holder(void)
> +{
> + asm volatile (
> + ".global optprobe_template_entry\n"
> + "optprobe_template_entry: \n"
> +#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> + /* We don't bother saving the ss register */
> + " pushq %rsp\n"
> + " pushfq\n"
> + SAVE_REGS_STRING
> + " movq %rsp, %rsi\n"
> + ".global optprobe_template_val\n"
> + "optprobe_template_val: \n"
> + ASM_NOP5
> + ASM_NOP5
> + ".global optprobe_template_call\n"
> + "optprobe_template_call: \n"
> + ASM_NOP5
> + /* Move flags to rsp */
> + " movq 144(%rsp), %rdx\n"
> + " movq %rdx, 152(%rsp)\n"
> + RESTORE_REGS_STRING
> + /* Skip flags entry */
> + " addq $8, %rsp\n"
> + " popfq\n"
> +#else /* CONFIG_X86_32 */
> + " pushf\n"
> + SAVE_REGS_STRING
> + " movl %esp, %edx\n"
> + ".global optprobe_template_val\n"
> + "optprobe_template_val: \n"
> + ASM_NOP5
> + ".global optprobe_template_call\n"
> + "optprobe_template_call: \n"
> + ASM_NOP5
> + RESTORE_REGS_STRING
> + " addl $4, %esp\n" /* skip cs */
> + " popf\n"
> +#endif
> + ".global optprobe_template_end\n"
> + "optprobe_template_end: \n");
> +}
> +
> +#define TMPL_MOVE_IDX \
> + ((long)&optprobe_template_val - (long)&optprobe_template_entry)
> +#define TMPL_CALL_IDX \
> + ((long)&optprobe_template_call - (long)&optprobe_template_entry)
> +#define TMPL_END_IDX \
> + ((long)&optprobe_template_end - (long)&optprobe_template_entry)
> +
> +#define INT3_SIZE sizeof(kprobe_opcode_t)
> +
> +/* Optimized kprobe call back function: called from optinsn */
> +static void __kprobes optimized_callback(struct optimized_kprobe *op,
> + struct pt_regs *regs)
> +{
> + struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb = get_kprobe_ctlblk();
> +
> + preempt_disable();
> + if (kprobe_running()) {
> + kprobes_inc_nmissed_count(&op->kp);
> + } else {
> + /* Save skipped registers */
> +#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> + regs->cs = __KERNEL_CS;
> +#else
> + regs->cs = __KERNEL_CS | get_kernel_rpl();
> + regs->gs = 0;
> +#endif
> + regs->ip = (unsigned long)op->kp.addr + INT3_SIZE;
> + regs->orig_ax = ~0UL;
> +
> + __get_cpu_var(current_kprobe) = &op->kp;
> + kcb->kprobe_status = KPROBE_HIT_ACTIVE;
> + opt_pre_handler(&op->kp, regs);
> + __get_cpu_var(current_kprobe) = NULL;
> + }
> + preempt_enable_no_resched();
> +}
> +
> +static int __kprobes copy_optimized_instructions(u8 *dest, u8 *src)
> +{
> + int len = 0, ret;
> + while (len < RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE) {
> + ret = __copy_instruction(dest + len, src + len, 1);
> + if (!ret || !can_boost(dest + len))
> + return -EINVAL;
> + len += ret;
> + }
> + return len;
> +}
> +
> +/* Check whether insn is indirect jump */
> +static int __kprobes insn_is_indirect_jump(struct insn *insn)
> +{
> + return (insn->opcode.bytes[0] == 0xff ||
> + insn->opcode.bytes[0] == 0xea);
> +}
> +
> +/* Check whether insn jumps into specified address range */
> +static int insn_jump_into_range(struct insn *insn, unsigned long start, int len)
> +{
> + unsigned long target = 0;
> + switch (insn->opcode.bytes[0]) {
> + case 0xe0: /* loopne */
> + case 0xe1: /* loope */
> + case 0xe2: /* loop */
> + case 0xe3: /* jcxz */
> + case 0xe9: /* near relative jump */
> + case 0xeb: /* short relative jump */
> + break;
> + case 0x0f:
> + if ((insn->opcode.bytes[1] & 0xf0) == 0x80) /* jcc near */
> + break;
> + return 0;
> + default:
> + if ((insn->opcode.bytes[0] & 0xf0) == 0x70) /* jcc short */
> + break;
> + return 0;
> + }
> + target = (unsigned long)insn->next_byte + insn->immediate.value;
> + return (start <= target && target <= start + len);
> +}
> +
> +/* Decode whole function to ensure any instructions don't jump into target */
> +static int __kprobes can_optimize(unsigned long paddr)
> +{
> + int ret;
> + unsigned long addr, size = 0, offset = 0;
> + struct insn insn;
> + kprobe_opcode_t buf[MAX_INSN_SIZE];
> + /* Dummy buffers for lookup_symbol_attrs */
> + static char __dummy_buf[KSYM_NAME_LEN];
> +
> + /* Lookup symbol including addr */
> + if (!kallsyms_lookup(paddr, &size, &offset, NULL, __dummy_buf))
> + return 0;
> +
> + /* Check there is enough space for a relative jump. */
> + if (size - offset < RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE)
> + return 0;
> +
> + /* Decode instructions */
> + addr = paddr - offset;
> + while (addr < paddr - offset + size) { /* Decode until function end */
> + if (search_exception_tables(addr))
> + /*
> + * Since some fixup code will jumps into this function,
> + * we can't optimize kprobe in this function.
> + */
> + return 0;
> + kernel_insn_init(&insn, (void *)addr);
> + insn_get_opcode(&insn);
> + if (insn.opcode.bytes[0] == BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION) {
> + ret = recover_probed_instruction(buf, addr);
> + if (ret)
> + return 0;
> + kernel_insn_init(&insn, buf);
> + }
> + insn_get_length(&insn);
> + /* Recover address */
> + insn.kaddr = (void *)addr;
> + insn.next_byte = (void *)(addr + insn.length);
> + /* Check any instructions don't jump into target */
> + if (insn_is_indirect_jump(&insn) ||
> + insn_jump_into_range(&insn, paddr + INT3_SIZE,
> + RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE))
> + return 0;
> + addr += insn.length;
> + }
> +
> + return 1;
> +}
> +
> +/* Check optimized_kprobe can actually be optimized. */
> +int __kprobes arch_check_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
> +{
> + int i;
> + for (i = 1; i < op->optinsn.size; i++)
> + if (get_kprobe(op->kp.addr + i))
> + return -EEXIST;
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/* Check the addr is within the optimized instructions. */
> +int __kprobes arch_within_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op,
> + unsigned long addr)
> +{
> + return ((unsigned long)op->kp.addr <= addr &&
> + (unsigned long)op->kp.addr + op->optinsn.size > addr);
> +}
> +
> +/* Free optimized instruction slot */
> +static __kprobes
> +void __arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op, int dirty)
> +{
> + if (op->optinsn.insn) {
> + free_optinsn_slot(op->optinsn.insn, dirty);
> + op->optinsn.insn = NULL;
> + op->optinsn.size = 0;
> + }
> +}
> +
> +void __kprobes arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
> +{
> + __arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(op, 1);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Copy replacing target instructions
> + * Target instructions MUST be relocatable (checked inside)
> + */
> +int __kprobes arch_prepare_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
> +{
> + u8 *buf;
> + int ret;
> +
> + if (!can_optimize((unsigned long)op->kp.addr))
> + return -EILSEQ;
> +
> + op->optinsn.insn = get_optinsn_slot();
> + if (!op->optinsn.insn)
> + return -ENOMEM;
> +
> + buf = (u8 *)op->optinsn.insn;
> +
> + /* Copy instructions into the out-of-line buffer */
> + ret = copy_optimized_instructions(buf + TMPL_END_IDX, op->kp.addr);
> + if (ret < 0) {
> + __arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(op, 0);
> + return ret;
> + }
> + op->optinsn.size = ret;
> +
> + /* Backup instructions which will be replaced by jump address */
> + memcpy(op->optinsn.copied_insn, op->kp.addr + INT3_SIZE,
> + RELATIVE_ADDR_SIZE);
> +
> + /* Copy arch-dep-instance from template */
> + memcpy(buf, &optprobe_template_entry, TMPL_END_IDX);
> +
> + /* Set probe information */
> + synthesize_set_arg1(buf + TMPL_MOVE_IDX, (unsigned long)op);
> +
> + /* Set probe function call */
> + synthesize_relcall(buf + TMPL_CALL_IDX, optimized_callback);
> +
> + /* Set returning jmp instruction at the tail of out-of-line buffer */
> + synthesize_reljump(buf + TMPL_END_IDX + op->optinsn.size,
> + (u8 *)op->kp.addr + op->optinsn.size);
> +
> + flush_icache_range((unsigned long) buf,
> + (unsigned long) buf + TMPL_END_IDX +
> + op->optinsn.size + RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Cross-modifying kernel text with stop_machine().
> + * This code originally comes from immediate value.
> + * This does _not_ protect against NMI and MCE. However,
> + * since kprobes can't probe NMI/MCE handler, it is OK for kprobes.
> + */
> +static atomic_t stop_machine_first;
> +static int wrote_text;
> +
> +struct text_poke_param {
> + void *addr;
> + const void *opcode;
> + size_t len;
> +};
> +
> +static int __kprobes stop_machine_multibyte_poke(void *data)
> +{
> + struct text_poke_param *tpp = data;
> +
> + if (atomic_dec_and_test(&stop_machine_first)) {
> + text_poke(tpp->addr, tpp->opcode, tpp->len);
> + smp_wmb(); /* Make sure other cpus see that this has run */
> + wrote_text = 1;
> + } else {
> + while (!wrote_text)
> + smp_rmb();
> + sync_core();
> + }
> +
> + flush_icache_range((unsigned long)tpp->addr,
> + (unsigned long)tpp->addr + tpp->len);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static void *__kprobes __multibyte_poke(void *addr, const void *opcode,
> + size_t len)
> +{
> + struct text_poke_param tpp;
> +
> + tpp.addr = addr;
> + tpp.opcode = opcode;
> + tpp.len = len;
> + atomic_set(&stop_machine_first, 1);
> + wrote_text = 0;
> + stop_machine(stop_machine_multibyte_poke, (void *)&tpp, NULL);
> + return addr;
> +}

As you know, I'd like to have the jump label optimization for
tracepoints, make use of this '__multibyte_poke()' interface. So perhaps
it can be moved to arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c. This is where 'text_poke()'
and friends currently live.

Also, with multiple users we don't want to trample over each others code
patching. Thus, if each sub-system could register some type of
'is_reserved()' callback, and then we can call all these call backs from
the '__multibyte_poke()' routine before we do any patching to make sure
that we aren't trampling on each others code. After a successful
patching, each sub-system can update its reserved set of code as
appropriate. I can code a prototype here, if this makes sense.

thanks,

-Jason



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