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SubjectRe: [PATCH] BUILD_BUG_ON: make it handle more cases
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On 10/20/09, Américo Wang <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com> wrote:
> On Tue, Oct 20, 2009 at 02:15:33PM +1030, Rusty Russell wrote:
>>BUILD_BUG_ON used to use the optimizer to do code elimination or fail
>>at link time; it was changed to first the size of a negative array (a
>>nicer compile time error), then (in
>>8c87df457cb58fe75b9b893007917cf8095660a0) to a bitfield.
>>
>>bitfields: needs a literal constant at parse time, and can't be put under
>> "if (__builtin_constant_p(x))" for example.
>>negative array: can handle anything, but if the compiler can't tell it's
>> a constant, silently has no effect.
>>link time: breaks link if the compiler can't determine the value, but the
>> linker output is not usually as informative as a compiler error.
>>
>>If we use the negative-array-size method *and* the link time trick,
>>we get the ability to use BUILD_BUG_ON() under __builtin_constant_p()
>>branches, and maximal ability for the compiler to detect errors at
>>build time.
>>
>>Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
>>
>>diff --git a/include/linux/kernel.h b/include/linux/kernel.h
>>--- a/include/linux/kernel.h
>>+++ b/include/linux/kernel.h
>>@@ -683,12 +683,6 @@ struct sysinfo {
>> char _f[20-2*sizeof(long)-sizeof(int)]; /* Padding: libc5 uses this.. */
>> };
>>
>>-/* Force a compilation error if condition is true */
>>-#define BUILD_BUG_ON(condition) ((void)BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO(condition))
>>-
>>-/* Force a compilation error if condition is constant and true */
>>-#define MAYBE_BUILD_BUG_ON(cond) ((void)sizeof(char[1 - 2 * !!(cond)]))
>>-
>> /* Force a compilation error if condition is true, but also produce a
>> result (of value 0 and type size_t), so the expression can be used
>> e.g. in a structure initializer (or where-ever else comma expressions
>>@@ -696,6 +690,33 @@ struct sysinfo {
>> #define BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO(e) (sizeof(struct { int:-!!(e); }))
>> #define BUILD_BUG_ON_NULL(e) ((void *)sizeof(struct { int:-!!(e); }))
>>
>>+/**
>>+ * BUILD_BUG_ON - break compile if a condition is true.
>>+ * @cond: the condition which the compiler should know is false.
>>+ *
>>+ * If you have some code which relies on certain constants being equal, or
>>+ * other compile-time-evaluated condition, you should use BUILD_BUG_ON to
>>+ * detect if someone changes it.
>>+ *
>>+ * The implementation uses gcc's reluctance to create a negative array,
>> but
>>+ * gcc (as of 4.4) only emits that error for obvious cases (eg. not
>> arguments
>>+ * to inline functions). So as a fallback we use the optimizer; if it
>> can't
>>+ * prove the condition is false, it will cause a link error on the
>> undefined
>>+ * "__build_bug_on_failed". This error message can be harder to track
>> down
>>+ * though, hence the two different methods.
>>+ */
>>+#ifndef __OPTIMIZE__
>>+#define BUILD_BUG_ON(condition) ((void)sizeof(char[1 - 2*!!(condition)]))
>>+#else
>>+extern int __build_bug_on_failed;
>
> Hmm, what exactly is __build_bug_on_failed?

Well, we haven't added a definition for it in this patch. I'm sure
grep will tell you it wasn't defined before hand either. So any
reference to it is an error - which will be reported at link time.

>>+#define BUILD_BUG_ON(condition) \
>>+ do { \
>>+ ((void)sizeof(char[1 - 2*!!(condition)])); \
>>+ if (condition) __build_bug_on_failed = 1; \

If "condition" is known false at compile time, gcc -O will eliminate
the code which refers to __build_bug_on_failed. If it's not proved to
be false - it will break the build, which is exactly what we want
BUILD_BUG_ON to do.

>>+ } while(0)
>>+#endif
>>+#define MAYBE_BUILD_BUG_ON(condition) BUILD_BUG_ON(condition)
>>+
>> /* Trap pasters of __FUNCTION__ at compile-time */
>> #define __FUNCTION__ (__func__)
>>
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