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SubjectRe: [RFC][PATCH] Remove cgroup member from struct page
* KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> [2008-09-03 12:33:06]:

> On Tue, 02 Sep 2008 18:07:18 +0530
> Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> wrote:
> > I understand your concern and I am not trying to reduce memcg's performance - or
> > add a fancy feature. I am trying to make memcg more friendly for distros. I see
> > your point about the overhead. I just got back my results - I see a 4% overhead
> > with the patches. Let me see if I can rework them for better performance.
> >
> Just an idea, by using atomic_ops page_cgroup patch, you can encode page_cgroup->lock
> to page_cgroup->flags and use bit_spinlock(), I think.
> (my new patch set use bit_spinlock on page_cgroup->flags for avoiding some race.)
>
> This will save extra 4 bytes.

Sorry for the delay in sending out the new patch, I am traveling and
thus a little less responsive. Here is the update patch


v3...v2
1. Convert flags to unsigned long
2. Move page_cgroup->lock to a bit spin lock in flags

v2...v1

1. Fix a small bug, don't call radix_tree_preload_end(), if preload fails

This is a rewrite of a patch I had written long back to remove struct page
(I shared the patches with Kamezawa, but never posted them anywhere else).
I spent the weekend, cleaning them up for 2.6.27-rc5-mmotm (29 Aug 2008).

I've tested the patches on an x86_64 box, I've run a simple test running
under the memory control group and the same test running concurrently under
two different groups (and creating pressure within their groups). I've also
compiled the patch with CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR turned off.

Advantages of the patch

1. It removes the extra pointer in struct page

Disadvantages

1. Radix tree lookup is not an O(1) operation, once the page is known
getting to the page_cgroup (pc) is a little more expensive now.

This is an initial RFC for comments

TODOs

1. Test the page migration changes

Performance

In a unixbench run, these patches had a performance impact of 2% (slowdown).

Comments/Reviews?

Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---

include/linux/memcontrol.h | 23 +++++
include/linux/mm_types.h | 4
mm/memcontrol.c | 187 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
3 files changed, 144 insertions(+), 70 deletions(-)

diff -puN mm/memcontrol.c~memcg_move_to_radix_tree mm/memcontrol.c
--- linux-2.6.27-rc5/mm/memcontrol.c~memcg_move_to_radix_tree 2008-09-04 15:45:54.000000000 +0530
+++ linux-2.6.27-rc5-balbir/mm/memcontrol.c 2008-09-08 20:15:30.000000000 +0530
@@ -24,6 +24,7 @@
#include <linux/smp.h>
#include <linux/page-flags.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
+#include <linux/radix-tree.h>
#include <linux/bit_spinlock.h>
#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
@@ -40,6 +41,9 @@ struct cgroup_subsys mem_cgroup_subsys _
static struct kmem_cache *page_cgroup_cache __read_mostly;
#define MEM_CGROUP_RECLAIM_RETRIES 5

+static struct radix_tree_root mem_cgroup_tree;
+static spinlock_t mem_cgroup_tree_lock;
+
/*
* Statistics for memory cgroup.
*/
@@ -137,20 +141,6 @@ struct mem_cgroup {
static struct mem_cgroup init_mem_cgroup;

/*
- * We use the lower bit of the page->page_cgroup pointer as a bit spin
- * lock. We need to ensure that page->page_cgroup is at least two
- * byte aligned (based on comments from Nick Piggin). But since
- * bit_spin_lock doesn't actually set that lock bit in a non-debug
- * uniprocessor kernel, we should avoid setting it here too.
- */
-#define PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK_BIT 0x0
-#if defined(CONFIG_SMP) || defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_SPINLOCK)
-#define PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK (1 << PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK_BIT)
-#else
-#define PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK 0x0
-#endif
-
-/*
* A page_cgroup page is associated with every page descriptor. The
* page_cgroup helps us identify information about the cgroup
*/
@@ -158,12 +148,17 @@ struct page_cgroup {
struct list_head lru; /* per cgroup LRU list */
struct page *page;
struct mem_cgroup *mem_cgroup;
- int flags;
+ unsigned long flags;
};
-#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_CACHE (0x1) /* charged as cache */
-#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_ACTIVE (0x2) /* page is active in this cgroup */
-#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_FILE (0x4) /* page is file system backed */
-#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_UNEVICTABLE (0x8) /* page is unevictableable */
+
+/*
+ * LOCK_BIT is 0, with value 1
+ */
+#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_LOCK_BIT (0x0) /* lock bit */
+#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_CACHE (0x2) /* charged as cache */
+#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_ACTIVE (0x4) /* page is active in this cgroup */
+#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_FILE (0x8) /* page is file system backed */
+#define PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_UNEVICTABLE (0x10)/* page is unevictableable */

static int page_cgroup_nid(struct page_cgroup *pc)
{
@@ -248,35 +243,81 @@ struct mem_cgroup *mem_cgroup_from_task(
struct mem_cgroup, css);
}

-static inline int page_cgroup_locked(struct page *page)
+static inline void lock_page_cgroup(struct page_cgroup *pc)
{
- return bit_spin_is_locked(PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK_BIT, &page->page_cgroup);
+ bit_spin_lock(PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_LOCK_BIT, &pc->flags);
}

-static void page_assign_page_cgroup(struct page *page, struct page_cgroup *pc)
+static inline int trylock_page_cgroup(struct page_cgroup *pc)
{
- VM_BUG_ON(!page_cgroup_locked(page));
- page->page_cgroup = ((unsigned long)pc | PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK);
+ return bit_spin_trylock(PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_LOCK_BIT, &pc->flags);
}

-struct page_cgroup *page_get_page_cgroup(struct page *page)
+static inline void unlock_page_cgroup(struct page_cgroup *pc)
{
- return (struct page_cgroup *) (page->page_cgroup & ~PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK);
+ bit_spin_unlock(PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_LOCK_BIT, &pc->flags);
}

-static void lock_page_cgroup(struct page *page)
+static int page_assign_page_cgroup(struct page *page, struct page_cgroup *pc,
+ gfp_t gfp_mask)
{
- bit_spin_lock(PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK_BIT, &page->page_cgroup);
-}
+ unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
+ unsigned long flags;
+ int err = 0;
+ struct page_cgroup *old_pc;

-static int try_lock_page_cgroup(struct page *page)
-{
- return bit_spin_trylock(PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK_BIT, &page->page_cgroup);
+ if (pc) {
+ err = radix_tree_preload(gfp_mask & ~__GFP_HIGHMEM);
+ if (err) {
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "could not preload radix tree "
+ "in %s\n", __func__);
+ goto done;
+ }
+ }
+
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&mem_cgroup_tree_lock, flags);
+ old_pc = radix_tree_lookup(&mem_cgroup_tree, pfn);
+ if (pc && old_pc) {
+ err = -EEXIST;
+ goto pc_race;
+ }
+ if (pc) {
+ err = radix_tree_insert(&mem_cgroup_tree, pfn, pc);
+ if (err)
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "Inserting into radix tree failed "
+ "in %s\n", __func__);
+ } else
+ radix_tree_delete(&mem_cgroup_tree, pfn);
+pc_race:
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&mem_cgroup_tree_lock, flags);
+ if (pc)
+ radix_tree_preload_end();
+done:
+ return err;
}

-static void unlock_page_cgroup(struct page *page)
+struct page_cgroup *__page_get_page_cgroup(struct page *page, bool lock,
+ bool trylock)
{
- bit_spin_unlock(PAGE_CGROUP_LOCK_BIT, &page->page_cgroup);
+ unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
+ struct page_cgroup *pc;
+ int ret;
+
+ rcu_read_lock();
+ pc = radix_tree_lookup(&mem_cgroup_tree, pfn);
+
+ if (pc && lock)
+ lock_page_cgroup(pc);
+
+ if (pc && trylock) {
+ ret = trylock_page_cgroup(pc);
+ if (!ret)
+ pc = NULL;
+ }
+
+ rcu_read_unlock();
+
+ return pc;
}

static void __mem_cgroup_remove_list(struct mem_cgroup_per_zone *mz,
@@ -377,17 +418,15 @@ void mem_cgroup_move_lists(struct page *
* safely get to page_cgroup without it, so just try_lock it:
* mem_cgroup_isolate_pages allows for page left on wrong list.
*/
- if (!try_lock_page_cgroup(page))
+ pc = page_get_page_cgroup_trylock(page);
+ if (!pc)
return;

- pc = page_get_page_cgroup(page);
- if (pc) {
- mz = page_cgroup_zoneinfo(pc);
- spin_lock_irqsave(&mz->lru_lock, flags);
- __mem_cgroup_move_lists(pc, lru);
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&mz->lru_lock, flags);
- }
- unlock_page_cgroup(page);
+ mz = page_cgroup_zoneinfo(pc);
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&mz->lru_lock, flags);
+ __mem_cgroup_move_lists(pc, lru);
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&mz->lru_lock, flags);
+ unlock_page_cgroup(pc);
}

/*
@@ -516,7 +555,7 @@ static int mem_cgroup_charge_common(stru
struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
{
struct mem_cgroup *mem;
- struct page_cgroup *pc;
+ struct page_cgroup *pc, *old_pc;
unsigned long flags;
unsigned long nr_retries = MEM_CGROUP_RECLAIM_RETRIES;
struct mem_cgroup_per_zone *mz;
@@ -569,35 +608,49 @@ static int mem_cgroup_charge_common(stru

pc->mem_cgroup = mem;
pc->page = page;
+ pc->flags = 0; /* No lock, no other bits either */
+
/*
* If a page is accounted as a page cache, insert to inactive list.
* If anon, insert to active list.
*/
if (ctype == MEM_CGROUP_CHARGE_TYPE_CACHE) {
- pc->flags = PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_CACHE;
+ pc->flags |= PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_CACHE;
if (page_is_file_cache(page))
pc->flags |= PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_FILE;
else
pc->flags |= PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_ACTIVE;
} else
- pc->flags = PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_ACTIVE;
+ pc->flags |= PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_ACTIVE;
+
+ old_pc = page_get_page_cgroup_locked(page);
+ if (old_pc) {
+ unlock_page_cgroup(old_pc);
+ res_counter_uncharge(&mem->res, PAGE_SIZE);
+ css_put(&mem->css);
+ kmem_cache_free(page_cgroup_cache, pc);
+ goto done;
+ }

- lock_page_cgroup(page);
- if (unlikely(page_get_page_cgroup(page))) {
- unlock_page_cgroup(page);
+ lock_page_cgroup(pc);
+ /*
+ * page_get_page_cgroup() does not necessarily guarantee that
+ * there will be no race in checking for pc, page_assign_page_pc()
+ * will definitely catch it.
+ */
+ if (page_assign_page_cgroup(page, pc, gfp_mask)) {
+ unlock_page_cgroup(pc);
res_counter_uncharge(&mem->res, PAGE_SIZE);
css_put(&mem->css);
kmem_cache_free(page_cgroup_cache, pc);
goto done;
}
- page_assign_page_cgroup(page, pc);

mz = page_cgroup_zoneinfo(pc);
spin_lock_irqsave(&mz->lru_lock, flags);
__mem_cgroup_add_list(mz, pc);
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&mz->lru_lock, flags);
-
- unlock_page_cgroup(page);
+ unlock_page_cgroup(pc);
done:
return 0;
out:
@@ -645,15 +698,13 @@ int mem_cgroup_cache_charge(struct page
if (!(gfp_mask & __GFP_WAIT)) {
struct page_cgroup *pc;

- lock_page_cgroup(page);
- pc = page_get_page_cgroup(page);
+ pc = page_get_page_cgroup_locked(page);
if (pc) {
VM_BUG_ON(pc->page != page);
VM_BUG_ON(!pc->mem_cgroup);
- unlock_page_cgroup(page);
+ unlock_page_cgroup(pc);
return 0;
}
- unlock_page_cgroup(page);
}

if (unlikely(!mm))
@@ -673,6 +724,7 @@ __mem_cgroup_uncharge_common(struct page
struct mem_cgroup *mem;
struct mem_cgroup_per_zone *mz;
unsigned long flags;
+ int ret;

if (mem_cgroup_subsys.disabled)
return;
@@ -680,8 +732,7 @@ __mem_cgroup_uncharge_common(struct page
/*
* Check if our page_cgroup is valid
*/
- lock_page_cgroup(page);
- pc = page_get_page_cgroup(page);
+ pc = page_get_page_cgroup_locked(page);
if (unlikely(!pc))
goto unlock;

@@ -697,8 +748,9 @@ __mem_cgroup_uncharge_common(struct page
__mem_cgroup_remove_list(mz, pc);
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&mz->lru_lock, flags);

- page_assign_page_cgroup(page, NULL);
- unlock_page_cgroup(page);
+ ret = page_assign_page_cgroup(page, NULL, GFP_KERNEL);
+ VM_BUG_ON(ret);
+ unlock_page_cgroup(pc);

mem = pc->mem_cgroup;
res_counter_uncharge(&mem->res, PAGE_SIZE);
@@ -707,7 +759,14 @@ __mem_cgroup_uncharge_common(struct page
kmem_cache_free(page_cgroup_cache, pc);
return;
unlock:
- unlock_page_cgroup(page);
+ unlock_page_cgroup(pc);
+}
+
+void page_reset_bad_cgroup(struct page *page)
+{
+ int ret;
+ ret = page_assign_page_cgroup(page, NULL, GFP_KERNEL);
+ VM_BUG_ON(ret);
}

void mem_cgroup_uncharge_page(struct page *page)
@@ -734,15 +793,14 @@ int mem_cgroup_prepare_migration(struct
if (mem_cgroup_subsys.disabled)
return 0;

- lock_page_cgroup(page);
- pc = page_get_page_cgroup(page);
+ pc = page_get_page_cgroup_locked(page);
if (pc) {
mem = pc->mem_cgroup;
css_get(&mem->css);
if (pc->flags & PAGE_CGROUP_FLAG_CACHE)
ctype = MEM_CGROUP_CHARGE_TYPE_CACHE;
+ unlock_page_cgroup(pc);
}
- unlock_page_cgroup(page);
if (mem) {
ret = mem_cgroup_charge_common(newpage, NULL, GFP_KERNEL,
ctype, mem);
@@ -1107,6 +1165,7 @@ mem_cgroup_create(struct cgroup_subsys *
if (unlikely((cont->parent) == NULL)) {
mem = &init_mem_cgroup;
page_cgroup_cache = KMEM_CACHE(page_cgroup, SLAB_PANIC);
+ spin_lock_init(&mem_cgroup_tree_lock);
} else {
mem = mem_cgroup_alloc();
if (!mem)
diff -puN include/linux/memcontrol.h~memcg_move_to_radix_tree include/linux/memcontrol.h
--- linux-2.6.27-rc5/include/linux/memcontrol.h~memcg_move_to_radix_tree 2008-09-04 15:45:54.000000000 +0530
+++ linux-2.6.27-rc5-balbir/include/linux/memcontrol.h 2008-09-04 15:45:54.000000000 +0530
@@ -27,9 +27,28 @@ struct mm_struct;

#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR

-#define page_reset_bad_cgroup(page) ((page)->page_cgroup = 0)
+extern void page_reset_bad_cgroup(struct page *page);
+extern struct page_cgroup *__page_get_page_cgroup(struct page *page, bool lock,
+ bool trylock);
+
+static __always_inline
+struct page_cgroup *page_get_page_cgroup(struct page *page)
+{
+ return __page_get_page_cgroup(page, false, false);
+}
+
+static __always_inline
+struct page_cgroup *page_get_page_cgroup_trylock(struct page *page)
+{
+ return __page_get_page_cgroup(page, false, true);
+}
+
+static __always_inline
+struct page_cgroup *page_get_page_cgroup_locked(struct page *page)
+{
+ return __page_get_page_cgroup(page, true, false);
+}

-extern struct page_cgroup *page_get_page_cgroup(struct page *page);
extern int mem_cgroup_charge(struct page *page, struct mm_struct *mm,
gfp_t gfp_mask);
extern int mem_cgroup_cache_charge(struct page *page, struct mm_struct *mm,
diff -puN include/linux/mm_types.h~memcg_move_to_radix_tree include/linux/mm_types.h
--- linux-2.6.27-rc5/include/linux/mm_types.h~memcg_move_to_radix_tree 2008-09-04 15:45:54.000000000 +0530
+++ linux-2.6.27-rc5-balbir/include/linux/mm_types.h 2008-09-04 15:45:54.000000000 +0530
@@ -92,10 +92,6 @@ struct page {
void *virtual; /* Kernel virtual address (NULL if
not kmapped, ie. highmem) */
#endif /* WANT_PAGE_VIRTUAL */
-#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR
- unsigned long page_cgroup;
-#endif
-
#ifdef CONFIG_KMEMCHECK
void *shadow;
#endif
diff -puN mm/page_alloc.c~memcg_move_to_radix_tree mm/page_alloc.c
_
--
Balbir


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