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SubjectRe: mmap/munmap latency on multithreaded apps, because pagefaults hold mmap_sem during disk read
Török Edwin wrote:
> On 2008-09-08 22:10, Török Edwin wrote:
>> [snip]
>> There is however a problem with mmap [mmap with N threads is as slow as
>> mmap with 1 thread, i.e. it is sequential :(], pagefaults and disk I/O,
>> I think I am hitting the problem described in this thread (2 years ago!)
>> http://lwn.net/Articles/200215/
>> http://lkml.org/lkml/2006/9/19/260
>>
>> It looks like such a patch is still not part of 2.6.27, what happened to it?
>> I will see if that patch applies to 2.6.27, and will rerun my test with
>> that patch applied too.
>>
>
> The patch doesn't apply to 2.6.27-rc6, I tried manually applying the patch.
> There have been many changes since 2.6.18 (like replacing find_get_page
> with find_lock_page, filemap returning VM_FAULT codes, etc.).
> I have probably done something wrong, because the resulting kernel won't
> boot: I get abnormal exits and random sigbus during boot.
>
> Can you please help porting the patch to 2.6.27-rc6? I have attached my
> 2 attempts at the end of this mail.

I actually have to forward port this and a bunch of other mm speed-ups
in the coming two weeks, though they'll be ports from 2.6.18 to 2.6.26.
I'll be sending them out to linux-mm once I've done so and completed
some testing.

>
> Also it looks like the original patch just releases the mmap_sem if
> there is lock contention on the page, but keeps mmap_sem during read?
> I would like mmap_sem be released during disk I/O too.

The 'lock'ing of the page is the part that waits for the read to finish,
and is the part that is contentious.

>
> I also tried changing i_mmap_lock into a semaphore, however I that won't
> work since some users of i_mmap_lock can't sleep.
> Taking the i_mmap_lock spinlock in filemap fault is also not possible,
> since we would sleep while holding a spinlock.

You shouldn't be seeing much contention on the i_mmap_lock, at least not
in the fault path (it's mostly just painful when you have a lot of
threads in direct reclaim and you have a large file mmaped).

>
> Just to confirm that the problem is with pagefaults and mmap, I dropped
> the mmap_sem in filemap_fault, and then
> I got same performance in my testprogram for mmap and read. Of course
> this is totally unsafe, because the mapping could change at any time.
>
>> [2] the test program is available here:
>> http://edwintorok.googlepages.com/scalability.tar.gz
>> You just build it using 'make' (has to be GNU make), and the run
>> $ sh ./runtest.sh /usr/bin/ | tee log
>> $ sh ./postproc.sh log
>
> I've written a latency tracer (using ptrace), and I identified the
> mutex/mmap related latencies (total runtime 23m):
> - mmap-ed files (created by libclamav) ~6680 ms total
> - creating/removing anonymous mappings, created by glibc, when I use
> functions like fopen/fclose:
>
> With 8 threads:
> =====> Total: 3227.732 ms, average: 3.590 ms, times: 899
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (mmap)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_file_doallocate)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_doallocbuf)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_file_seekoff)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_file_attach)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_fdopen)
> === /usr/lib/libz.so.1 (gzflush)
> === /usr/lib/libz.so.1 (gzdopen)
> === /usr/local/lib/libclamav.so.5 libclamav/scanners.c:470 (cli_scangzip)
>
> =====> Total: 2069.519 ms, average: 3.624 ms, times: 571
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (munmap)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_setb)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_file_close_it)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_fclose)
> === /usr/lib/libz.so.1 (gzerror)
> === /usr/local/lib/libclamav.so.5 libclamav/scanners.c:529 (cli_scangzip)
>
> with 4 threads:
> =====> Total: 578.607 ms, average: 4.743 ms, times: 122
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (munmap)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_setb)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_file_close_it)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_fclose)
> === /usr/lib/libz.so.1 (gzerror)
> === /usr/local/lib/libclamav.so.5 libclamav/scanners.c:529 (cli_scangzip)
>
> =====> Total: 148.083 ms, average: 2.278 ms, times: 65
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (mmap)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_file_doallocate)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_doallocbuf)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_file_seekoff)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_file_attach)
> === /lib/libc.so.6 (_IO_fdopen)
> === /usr/lib/libz.so.1 (gzflush)
> === /usr/lib/libz.so.1 (gzdopen)
> === /usr/local/lib/libclamav.so.5 libclamav/scanners.c:470 (cli_scangzip)
>
> With 8 threads situation is much worse than with 4 threads even for
> functions using anonymous mappings.
>
> Of course the latency tracer has its own overhead (1.2 ms average, 67 ms
> max for 8 threads, and 0.1 ms average, 31 ms max for 4 threads),but
> these latencies are above that value.
>
> Best regards,
> --Edwin
>
> ---
> First attempt:
> arch/x86/mm/fault.c | 33 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
> include/linux/mm.h | 1 +
> include/linux/mm_types.h | 1 -
> include/linux/sched.h | 1 +
> mm/filemap.c | 18 ++++++++++++------
> 5 files changed, 41 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)
> diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/fault.c b/arch/x86/mm/fault.c
> index 455f3fe..38bea4b 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/mm/fault.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/mm/fault.c
> @@ -578,10 +578,7 @@ int show_unhandled_signals = 1;
> * and the problem, and then passes it off to one of the appropriate
> * routines.
> */
> -#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> -asmlinkage
> -#endif
> -void __kprobes do_page_fault(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long
> error_code)
> +static inline void __do_page_fault(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long
> error_code)
> {
> struct task_struct *tsk;
> struct mm_struct *mm;
> @@ -702,6 +699,7 @@ again:
> down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
> }
>
> +retry:
> vma = find_vma(mm, address);
> if (!vma)
> goto bad_area;
> @@ -761,8 +759,21 @@ survive:
> }
> if (fault & VM_FAULT_MAJOR)
> tsk->maj_flt++;
> - else
> - tsk->min_flt++;
> + else {
> + if ((fault & VM_FAULT_RETRY) && (current->flags &
> PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY)) {
> + current->flags &= ~PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY;
> + goto retry;
> + }
> + /*
> + * If we had to retry (PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY cleared), then
> + * the page originally wasn't up to date before the
> + * retry, but now it is.
> + */
> + if (!(current->flags & PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY))
> + tsk->maj_flt++;
> + else
> + tsk->min_flt++;
> + }
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
> /*
> @@ -909,6 +920,16 @@ do_sigbus:
> tsk->thread.trap_no = 14;
> force_sig_info_fault(SIGBUS, BUS_ADRERR, address, tsk);
> }
> +#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> +asmlinkage
> +#endif
> +void __kprobes do_page_fault(struct pt_regs *regs,
> + unsigned long error_code)
> +{
> + current->flags |= PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY;
> + __do_page_fault(regs, error_code);
> + current->flags &= ~PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY;
> +}
>
> DEFINE_SPINLOCK(pgd_lock);
> LIST_HEAD(pgd_list);
> diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
> index 72a15dc..4511f68 100644
> --- a/include/linux/mm.h
> +++ b/include/linux/mm.h
> @@ -697,6 +697,7 @@ static inline int page_mapped(struct page *page)
>
> #define VM_FAULT_NOPAGE 0x0100 /* ->fault installed the pte, not
> return page */
> #define VM_FAULT_LOCKED 0x0200 /* ->fault locked the returned page */
> +#define VM_FAULT_RETRY 0x0400
>
> #define VM_FAULT_ERROR (VM_FAULT_OOM | VM_FAULT_SIGBUS)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/mm_types.h b/include/linux/mm_types.h
> index bf33413..9d065a4 100644
> --- a/include/linux/mm_types.h
> +++ b/include/linux/mm_types.h
> @@ -108,7 +108,6 @@ struct vm_area_struct {
> unsigned long vm_start; /* Our start address within vm_mm. */
> unsigned long vm_end; /* The first byte after our end address
> within vm_mm. */
> -
> /* linked list of VM areas per task, sorted by address */
> struct vm_area_struct *vm_next;
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
> index 3d9120c..bc39432 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sched.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sched.h
> @@ -1507,6 +1507,7 @@ extern cputime_t task_gtime(struct task_struct *p);
> #define PF_SPREAD_PAGE 0x01000000 /* Spread page cache over cpuset */
> #define PF_SPREAD_SLAB 0x02000000 /* Spread some slab caches over
> cpuset */
> #define PF_THREAD_BOUND 0x04000000 /* Thread bound to specific cpu */
> +#define PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY 0x08000000 /* I may drop mmap_sem during
> fault */
> #define PF_MEMPOLICY 0x10000000 /* Non-default NUMA mempolicy */
> #define PF_MUTEX_TESTER 0x20000000 /* Thread belongs to the rt
> mutex tester */
> #define PF_FREEZER_SKIP 0x40000000 /* Freezer should not count it
> as freezeable */
> diff --git a/mm/filemap.c b/mm/filemap.c
> index 876bc59..f9f11bd 100644
> --- a/mm/filemap.c
> +++ b/mm/filemap.c
> @@ -1443,18 +1443,17 @@ int filemap_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
> struct vm_fault *vmf)
> /*
> * Do we have something in the page cache already?
> */
> -retry_find:
> page = find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff);
> /*
> * For sequential accesses, we use the generic readahead logic.
> */
> if (VM_SequentialReadHint(vma)) {
> if (!page) {
> + up_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
> page_cache_sync_readahead(mapping, ra, file,
> vmf->pgoff, 1);
> - page = find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff);
> - if (!page)
> - goto no_cached_page;
> + down_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
> + return VM_FAULT_RETRY;
> }
> if (PageReadahead(page)) {
> page_cache_async_readahead(mapping, ra, file, page,
> @@ -1489,7 +1488,10 @@ retry_find:
>
> if (vmf->pgoff > ra_pages / 2)
> start = vmf->pgoff - ra_pages / 2;
> + up_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
> do_page_cache_readahead(mapping, file, start, ra_pages);
> + down_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
> + return VM_FAULT_RETRY;
> }
> page = find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff);
> if (!page)
> @@ -1527,7 +1529,9 @@ no_cached_page:
> * We're only likely to ever get here if MADV_RANDOM is in
> * effect.
> */
> + up_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
> error = page_cache_read(file, vmf->pgoff);
> + down_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
>
> /*
> * The page we want has now been added to the page cache.
> @@ -1535,7 +1539,7 @@ no_cached_page:
> * meantime, we'll just come back here and read it again.
> */
> if (error >= 0)
> - goto retry_find;
> + return VM_FAULT_RETRY;
>
> /*
> * An error return from page_cache_read can result if the
> @@ -1560,16 +1564,18 @@ page_not_uptodate:
> * and we need to check for errors.
> */
> ClearPageError(page);
> + up_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
> error = mapping->a_ops->readpage(file, page);
> if (!error) {
> wait_on_page_locked(page);
> if (!PageUptodate(page))
> error = -EIO;
> }
> + down_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
> page_cache_release(page);
>
> if (!error || error == AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE)
> - goto retry_find;
> + return VM_FAULT_RETRY;
>
> /* Things didn't work out. Return zero to tell the mm layer so. */
> shrink_readahead_size_eio(file, ra);
>
> ---
> Second attempt
> arch/x86/mm/fault.c | 33 ++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
> include/linux/mm.h | 1
> include/linux/sched.h | 1
> mm/filemap.c | 56
> +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
> 4 files changed, 80 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)
> diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/fault.c b/arch/x86/mm/fault.c
> index 455f3fe..38bea4b 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/mm/fault.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/mm/fault.c
> @@ -578,10 +578,7 @@ int show_unhandled_signals = 1;
> * and the problem, and then passes it off to one of the appropriate
> * routines.
> */
> -#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> -asmlinkage
> -#endif
> -void __kprobes do_page_fault(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long
> error_code)
> +static inline void __do_page_fault(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long
> error_code)
> {
> struct task_struct *tsk;
> struct mm_struct *mm;
> @@ -702,6 +699,7 @@ again:
> down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
> }
>
> +retry:
> vma = find_vma(mm, address);
> if (!vma)
> goto bad_area;
> @@ -761,8 +759,21 @@ survive:
> }
> if (fault & VM_FAULT_MAJOR)
> tsk->maj_flt++;
> - else
> - tsk->min_flt++;
> + else {
> + if ((fault & VM_FAULT_RETRY) && (current->flags &
> PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY)) {
> + current->flags &= ~PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY;
> + goto retry;
> + }
> + /*
> + * If we had to retry (PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY cleared), then
> + * the page originally wasn't up to date before the
> + * retry, but now it is.
> + */
> + if (!(current->flags & PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY))
> + tsk->maj_flt++;
> + else
> + tsk->min_flt++;
> + }
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
> /*
> @@ -909,6 +920,16 @@ do_sigbus:
> tsk->thread.trap_no = 14;
> force_sig_info_fault(SIGBUS, BUS_ADRERR, address, tsk);
> }
> +#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
> +asmlinkage
> +#endif
> +void __kprobes do_page_fault(struct pt_regs *regs,
> + unsigned long error_code)
> +{
> + current->flags |= PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY;
> + __do_page_fault(regs, error_code);
> + current->flags &= ~PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY;
> +}
>
> DEFINE_SPINLOCK(pgd_lock);
> LIST_HEAD(pgd_list);
> diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
> index 72a15dc..e150c80 100644
> --- a/include/linux/mm.h
> +++ b/include/linux/mm.h
> @@ -694,6 +694,7 @@ static inline int page_mapped(struct page *page)
> #define VM_FAULT_SIGBUS 0x0002
> #define VM_FAULT_MAJOR 0x0004
> #define VM_FAULT_WRITE 0x0008 /* Special case for get_user_pages */
> +#define VM_FAULT_RETRY 0x0016
>
> #define VM_FAULT_NOPAGE 0x0100 /* ->fault installed the pte, not
> return page */
> #define VM_FAULT_LOCKED 0x0200 /* ->fault locked the returned page */
> diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
> index 3d9120c..bc39432 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sched.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sched.h
> @@ -1507,6 +1507,7 @@ extern cputime_t task_gtime(struct task_struct *p);
> #define PF_SPREAD_PAGE 0x01000000 /* Spread page cache over cpuset */
> #define PF_SPREAD_SLAB 0x02000000 /* Spread some slab caches over
> cpuset */
> #define PF_THREAD_BOUND 0x04000000 /* Thread bound to specific cpu */
> +#define PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY 0x08000000 /* I may drop mmap_sem during
> fault */
> #define PF_MEMPOLICY 0x10000000 /* Non-default NUMA mempolicy */
> #define PF_MUTEX_TESTER 0x20000000 /* Thread belongs to the rt
> mutex tester */
> #define PF_FREEZER_SKIP 0x40000000 /* Freezer should not count it
> as freezeable */
> diff --git a/mm/filemap.c b/mm/filemap.c
> index 876bc59..212ea0f 100644
> --- a/mm/filemap.c
> +++ b/mm/filemap.c
> @@ -670,6 +670,7 @@ repeat:
> }
> EXPORT_SYMBOL(find_get_page);
>
> +#define NOPAGE_RETRY ((struct page*)-1)
> /**
> * find_lock_page - locate, pin and lock a pagecache page
> * @mapping: the address_space to search
> @@ -680,14 +681,31 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(find_get_page);
> *
> * Returns zero if the page was not present. find_lock_page() may sleep.
> */
> -struct page *find_lock_page(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t offset)
> +static struct page *__find_lock_page(struct address_space *mapping,
> + pgoff_t offset, struct rw_semaphore *mmap_sem)
> {
> struct page *page;
>
> repeat:
> page = find_get_page(mapping, offset);
> if (page) {
> - lock_page(page);
> + if(!mmap_sem) {
> + lock_page(page);
> + } else if(!trylock_page(page)) {
> + /*
> + * Page is already locked by someone else.
> + * We don't want to be holding down_read(mmap_sem)
> + * inside lock_page(), so use wait_on_page_locked()
> here.
> + */
> + up_read(mmap_sem);
> + wait_on_page_locked(page);
> + down_read(mmap_sem);
> + /*
> + * The VMA tree may have changed at this point.
> + */
> + page_cache_release(page);
> + goto repeat;
> + }
> /* Has the page been truncated? */
> if (unlikely(page->mapping != mapping)) {
> unlock_page(page);
> @@ -698,6 +716,10 @@ repeat:
> }
> return page;
> }
> +struct page *find_lock_page(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t offset)
> +{
> + return __find_lock_page(mapping, offset, NULL);
> +}
> EXPORT_SYMBOL(find_lock_page);
>
> /**
> @@ -1427,6 +1449,8 @@ int filemap_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
> struct vm_fault *vmf)
> struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;
> struct file_ra_state *ra = &file->f_ra;
> struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
> + struct rw_semaphore *mmap_sem;
> + struct rw_semaphore *mmap_sem_mayretry;
> struct page *page;
> pgoff_t size;
> int did_readaround = 0;
> @@ -1435,6 +1459,7 @@ int filemap_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
> struct vm_fault *vmf)
> size = (i_size_read(inode) + PAGE_CACHE_SIZE - 1) >> PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT;
> if (vmf->pgoff >= size)
> return VM_FAULT_SIGBUS;
> + up_read(&vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem);
>
> /* If we don't want any read-ahead, don't bother */
> if (VM_RandomReadHint(vma))
> @@ -1443,16 +1468,25 @@ int filemap_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
> struct vm_fault *vmf)
> /*
> * Do we have something in the page cache already?
> */
> + mmap_sem = &vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem;
> + mmap_sem_mayretry = current->flags & PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY ? mmap_sem :
> NULL;
> retry_find:
> - page = find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff);
> + page = __find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff, mmap_sem_mayretry);
> + if(page == NOPAGE_RETRY)
> + goto nopage_retry;
> /*
> * For sequential accesses, we use the generic readahead logic.
> */
> if (VM_SequentialReadHint(vma)) {
> if (!page) {
> + up_read(mmap_sem);
> page_cache_sync_readahead(mapping, ra, file,
> vmf->pgoff, 1);
> - page = find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff);
> + down_read(mmap_sem);
> + page = __find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff,
> + mmap_sem_mayretry);
> + if(page == NOPAGE_RETRY)
> + goto nopage_retry;
> if (!page)
> goto no_cached_page;
> }
> @@ -1489,9 +1523,15 @@ retry_find:
>
> if (vmf->pgoff > ra_pages / 2)
> start = vmf->pgoff - ra_pages / 2;
> + up_read(mmap_sem);
> do_page_cache_readahead(mapping, file, start, ra_pages);
> + down_read(mmap_sem);
> }
> - page = find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff);
> + page = __find_lock_page(mapping, vmf->pgoff,
> + (current->flags & PF_FAULT_MAYRETRY) ?
> + &vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem : NULL);
> + if(page == NOPAGE_RETRY)
> + goto nopage_retry;
> if (!page)
> goto no_cached_page;
> }
> @@ -1527,7 +1567,9 @@ no_cached_page:
> * We're only likely to ever get here if MADV_RANDOM is in
> * effect.
> */
> + up_read(mmap_sem);
> error = page_cache_read(file, vmf->pgoff);
> + down_read(mmap_sem);
>
> /*
> * The page we want has now been added to the page cache.
> @@ -1560,12 +1602,14 @@ page_not_uptodate:
> * and we need to check for errors.
> */
> ClearPageError(page);
> + up_read(mmap_sem);
> error = mapping->a_ops->readpage(file, page);
> if (!error) {
> wait_on_page_locked(page);
> if (!PageUptodate(page))
> error = -EIO;
> }
> + down_read(mmap_sem);
> page_cache_release(page);
>
> if (!error || error == AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE)
> @@ -1574,6 +1618,8 @@ page_not_uptodate:
> /* Things didn't work out. Return zero to tell the mm layer so. */
> shrink_readahead_size_eio(file, ra);
> return VM_FAULT_SIGBUS;
> +nopage_retry:
> + return VM_FAULT_RETRY;
> }
> EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_fault);

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