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SubjectRe: [Bug #11342] Linux 2.6.27-rc3: kernel BUG at mm/vmalloc.c - bisected
Linus Torvalds wrote:
>
> On Mon, 25 Aug 2008, Linus Torvalds wrote:
>> checkstack.pl shows these things as the top problems:
>>
>> 0xffffffff80266234 smp_call_function_mask [vmlinux]: 2736
>> 0xffffffff80234747 __build_sched_domains [vmlinux]: 2232
>> 0xffffffff8023523f __build_sched_domains [vmlinux]: 2232
>>
>> Anyway, the reason smp_call_function_mask and friends have such _huge_
>> stack usages for you is that they contain a 'cpumask_t' on the stack.
>
> In fact, they contain multiple CPU-masks, each 4k-bits - 512 bytes - in
> size. And they tend to call each other.
>
> Quite frankly, I don't think we were really ready for 4k CPU's. I'm going
> to commit this patch to make sure others don't do that many CPU's by
> mistake. It marks MAXCPU's as being 'broken' so you cannot select it, and
> also limits the number of CPU's that you _can_ select to "just" 512.
>
> Right now, 4k cpu's is known broken because of the stack usage. I'm not
> willing to debug more of these kinds of stack smashers, they're really
> nasty to work with. I wonder how many other random failures these have
> been involved with?
>
> This patch also makes the ifdef mess in Kconfig much cleaner and avoids
> duplicate definitions by just conditionally suppressing the question and
> giving higher defaults.
>
> We can enable MAXSMP and raise the CPU limits some time in the future. But
> that future is not going to be before 2.6.27 - the code simply isn't ready
> for it.
>
> The reason I picked 512 CPU's as the limit is that we _used_ to limit
> things to 255. So it's higher than it used to be, but low enough to still
> feel safe. Considering that a 4k-bit CPU mask (512 bytes) _almost_ worked,
> the 512-bit (64 bytes) masks are almost certainly fine.
>
> Still, sane people should limit their NR_CPUS to 8 or 16 or something like
> that. Very very few people really need the pain of big NR_CPUS. Not even
> "just" 512 CPU's.
>
> Travis, Ingo and Thomas cc'd, since they were involved in the original
> commit (1184dc2ffe2c8fb9afb766d870850f2c3165ef25) that raised the limit.
>
> Linus

Hi Linus,

[Sorry for the long winded response, but I felt that sufficient background
is needed to address this issue.... YOMV :-)]

The need to allow distros to set NR_CPUS=4096 (and NODES_SHIFT=9) is
critical to our upcoming SGI systems using what we have been calling
"UV". This system will be capable of supporting 4096 cpu threads in a
single system image (and 16k cpus/2k nodes is right around the corner).
While obviously I cannot divulge too many details, it's sufficient to
say there are customers who not only require this extended capability,
but are extremely excited about it.

But the nature of some of these system environments is that they will
not accept a specially built kernel, but only a kernel that has been
built and certified (both from the application standpoint as well as
the security standpoint) by standard distributions. And you probably
know how extensively these distributions test and certify for many known
defects and absolutely require that incoming source changes come from
the community supported source bases, primarily yours.

Due to the lead time required to accomplish these certifications,
the version of the distributions that will be available when this
system releases will be based on 2.6.27. (They will allow patches
"post-2.6.27-rc.final" as long as those are committed in the source base.)
The two distributions that SGI supports for our customers is SLES
(SUSE Linux Enterprise Server) and RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux).
[They, of course, are free to run any OS of their choosing, but SGI only
provides front line support for those two.]

I started last August to begin analyzing how to accomplish the above goals
and where exactly are the hot spots in the kernel that would require
attention. It quickly became clear that cpumask_t and nodemask_t are
two variables that are very casually used (along with NR_CPUS), because
the assumption was that 64 "was more than sufficient" for an upper limit
and even extending it to 128 or 255 (254 was the maximum IPI broadcast
ID until x2apic), only added a few more bytes here and there.

I chose not to introduce too many dramatic changes and instead analyzed
every instance where cpumask_t and NR_CPUS was being used (along with the
node counterparts.) An initial proposal was to allow the default stack
size to be increased, but this was met with a lot of objections because
of the extensive work that was done to bring it to it's current size.

So in summary, the goals of the changes that I have been making since
last October are:

1. Allow a "typical distro" configured kernel with NR_CPUS=4096
and NODES_SHIFT=9 to be booted on an x86_64 system with 2GB
of memory. (Some thought was given to use a 512Mb laptop
as the base, but because of other memory bloat from using a
64-bit kernel, that was considered not very useful.)

[Note I frequently use an allyes and allmod config for
testing.]

2. To lessen as much as possible, the impact on memory usage for
that same kernel on that same system.

3. To lessen as much as possible, the impact on system performance
for that same kernel on that same system. [Which mostly
depended on #2.]

I booted the first 4096 cpu kernel last February, and since around March
or April, Ingo has been (build and boot) testing the x86 branch using
"MAXSMP" to trigger the increased defaults quite extensively (IIRC, it
was somewhere between 75% and 90% of all kernels built.) We here at SGI
nightly build 4 trees (linux-2.6, linux-next, linux-mm, linux-x86) to
insure new checkins don't conflict with changes we've made in the past.
Unfortunately, our run testing wasn't sufficient to catch this latest
error (and I will be quickly fixing that.)

I will also revisit all the past areas to analyze if there have been
other abuses of stack and memory space added since the 4k cpu limit
was "certified" as usable and releasable. (See below for an initial
survey of size increases between a 512cpu/64node configuration and a
4096cpu/512node configuration.)

So perhaps "MAXSMP" is not needed (or perhaps should be more hidden to
reduce accidental uses), but allowing the defaults listed above to be in
the standard x86/Kconfig insures that the distros can at least attempt
certification with the maximally configured kernels for their enterprise
editions of Linux.

There are many more changes that will be proposed for the 2.6.28 window.
Most certainly your concerns, as well as others, about how to change the
current "cpumask paradigm" to be more easily manageable for systems with
huge cpu counts, will be visited. (And surely be well discussed. :-)

Thanks,
Mike
---

linux-2.6: v2.6.27-rc4-176-gb8e6c91

====== Data (-l 500)
... files 2 vars 1421 all 0 lim 500 unch 0

1 - 512-64-allmodconfig
2 - 4096-512-allmodconfig

.1. .2. ..final..
1671168 +3899392 5570560 +233% irq_desc(.data.cacheline_aligned)
591872 +3899392 4491264 +658% irq_cfg(.data.read_mostly)
76800 +537600 614400 +700% early_node_map(.init.data)
66176 +462336 528512 +698% init_mem_cgroup(.bss)
65536 +458752 524288 +700% boot_pageset(.bss)
63648 +419328 482976 +658% kmalloc_caches(.data.cacheline_aligned)
15328 +61376 76704 +400% def_root_domain(.bss)
10240 +43008 53248 +420% change_point_list(.init.data)
8760 +504 9264 +5% init_task(.data)
8192 +57344 65536 +700% kgdb_info(.bss)
6404 +26880 33284 +419% e820_saved(.bss)
6404 +26880 33284 +419% e820(.bss)
6400 +26880 33280 +420% new_bios(.init.data)
5120 +35840 40960 +700% node_devices(.bss)
5120 +21504 26624 +420% change_point(.init.data)
4160 +29120 33280 +700% cpu_bit_bitmap(.rodata)
4096 +28672 32768 +700% __cpu_pda(.init.data)
3776 +25088 28864 +664% hstates(.bss)
3584 +25088 28672 +700% bootmem_node_data(.init.data)
2560 +10752 13312 +420% overlap_list(.init.data)
2048 +14336 16384 +700% x86_cpu_to_node_map_early_map(.init.data)
2048 +14336 16384 +700% was_in_debug_nmi(.bss)
2048 +14336 16384 +700% rio_devs(.init.data)
2048 +14336 16384 +700% passive_cpu_wait(.bss)
2048 +14336 16384 +700% node_memblk_range(.init.data)
2048 +14336 16384 +700% ints(.init.data)
2048 +14336 16384 +700% cpu_in_kgdb(.bss)
1024 +7168 8192 +700% x86_cpu_to_apicid_early_map(.init.data)
1024 +7168 8192 +700% x86_bios_cpu_apicid_early_map(.init.data)
1024 +1024 2048 +100% pxm_to_node_map(.data)
1024 +7168 8192 +700% nodes_add(.bss)
1024 +7168 8192 +700% nodes(.init.data)
512 +3584 4096 +700% zone_movable_pfn(.init.data)
512 +3584 4096 +700% tvec_base_done(.data)
512 +3584 4096 +700% scal_devs(.init.data)
512 +3584 4096 +700% node_data(.data.read_mostly)
512 +3584 4096 +700% memblk_nodeid(.init.data)
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0 +2048 2048 . node_order(.bss)
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0 +2048 2048 . fake_node_to_pxm_map(.init.data)
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0 +768 768 . rcu_bh_ctrlblk(.data)
0 +768 768 . per_cpu__cpu_info(.data.percpu)
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0 +760 760 . per_cpu__cpu_domains(.data.percpu)
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0 +632 632 . per_cpu__lapic_events(.data.percpu)
0 +632 632 . lapic_clockevent(.data)
0 +632 632 . hpet_clockevent(.data)
0 +616 616 . net_dma(.data)
0 +579 579 . do_migrate_pages(.text)
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0 +568 568 . irq0(.data)
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0 +528 528 . per_cpu__sched_group_core(.data.percpu)
0 +528 528 . per_cpu__sched_group_allnodes(.data.percpu)
0 +520 520 . out_of_memory(.text)
0 +520 520 . nohz(.data)
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0 +512 512 . tick_broadcast_mask(.bss)
0 +512 512 . prof_cpu_mask(.data)
0 +512 512 . per_cpu__local_cpu_mask(.data.percpu)
0 +512 512 . per_cpu__cpu_sibling_map(.data.percpu)
0 +512 512 . per_cpu__cpu_core_map(.data.percpu)
0 +512 512 . nohz_cpu_mask(.bss)
0 +512 512 . mce_device_initialized(.bss)
0 +512 512 . mce_cpus(.bss)
0 +512 512 . marked_cpus(.bss)
0 +512 512 . kmem_cach_cpu_free_init_once(.bss)
0 +512 512 . irq_default_affinity(.data)
0 +512 512 . frozen_cpus(.bss)
0 +512 512 . fallback_doms(.bss)
0 +512 512 . cpu_singlethread_map(.data.read_mostly)
0 +512 512 . cpu_sibling_setup_map(.bss)
0 +512 512 . cpu_present_map(.data.read_mostly)
0 +512 512 . cpu_possible_map(.bss)
0 +512 512 . cpu_populated_map(.data.read_mostly)
0 +512 512 . cpu_online_map(.data.read_mostly)
0 +512 512 . cpu_mask_none(.bss)
0 +512 512 . cpu_mask_all(.data.read_mostly)
0 +512 512 . cpu_isolated_map(.bss)
0 +512 512 . cpu_initialized(.data)
0 +512 512 . cpu_callout_map(.bss)
0 +512 512 . cpu_callin_map(.bss)
0 +512 512 . cpu_active_map(.bss)
0 +512 512 . cache_dev_map(.bss)
0 +512 512 . c1e_mask(.bss)
0 +512 512 . backtrace_mask(.bss)
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====== Sections (-l 500)
... files 2 vars 36 all 0 lim 500 unch 0

1 - 512-64-allmodconfig
2 - 4096-512-allmodconfig

.1. .2. ..final..
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8441752 +1215872 9657624 +14% .bss
2551715 +3136 2554851 <1% .text
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1640096 +6784 1646880 <1% .data.percpu
1175061 +29104 1204165 +2% .rodata
1073400 +13712 1087112 +1% .debug_abbrev
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302704 +13504 316208 +4% .data
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2 - 4096-512-allmodconfig

.1. .2. ..final..
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1 - 512-64-allmodconfig
2 - 4096-512-allmodconfig

.1. .2. ..final..
2048 -2048 . -100% vm_event_states
2048 -2048 . -100% softnet_data
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0 +2048 2048 . cpu_core_map
0 +2048 2048 . cpu_buffer
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====== Stack (-l 500)
... files 2 vars 126 all 0 lim 500 unch 0

1 - 512-64-allmodconfig
2 - 4096-512-allmodconfig

.1. .2. ..final..
0 +2712 2712 . smp_call_function_mask
0 +1576 1576 . setup_IO_APIC_irq
0 +1576 1576 . move_task_off_dead_cpu
0 +1560 1560 . arch_setup_ht_irq
0 +1560 1560 . __assign_irq_vector
0 +1544 1544 . tick_handle_oneshot_broadcast
0 +1544 1544 . msi_compose_msg
0 +1440 1440 . cpuset_write_resmask
0 +1352 1352 . store_scaling_governor
0 +1352 1352 . cpufreq_add_dev
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0 +1312 1312 . store_scaling_max_freq
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0 +1128 1128 . setup_IO_APIC
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0 +1080 1080 . sched_rt_period_timer
0 +1080 1080 . _cpu_down
0 +1064 1064 . set_ioapic_affinity_irq
0 +1048 1048 . store_interrupt_enable
0 +1048 1048 . setup_timer_IRQ0_pin
0 +1048 1048 . setup_ioapic_dest
0 +1048 1048 . set_msi_irq_affinity
0 +1048 1048 . set_ht_irq_affinity
0 +1048 1048 . native_machine_crash_shutdown
0 +1048 1048 . native_flush_tlb_others
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0 +1040 1040 . show_error_count
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0 +1032 1032 . tick_do_periodic_broadcast
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0 +1032 1032 . native_send_call_func_ipi
0 +1032 1032 . local_cpus_show
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0 +1032 1032 . irq_affinity_proc_write
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0 +1032 1032 . fixup_irqs
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0 +1024 1024 . uv_send_IPI_allbutself
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0 +1024 1024 . move_masked_irq
0 +1024 1024 . flush_tlb_page
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0 +784 784 . sd_init_ALLNODES
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0 +776 776 . sd_init_NODE
0 +768 768 . sd_init_MC
0 +768 768 . sd_init_CPU
0 +728 728 . update_flag
0 +696 696 . init_intel_cacheinfo
0 +680 680 . __build_sched_domains
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0 +648 648 . schedule
0 +640 640 . cpuset_attach
0 +616 616 . rebalance_domains
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0 +600 600 . cache_add_dev
0 +584 584 . shmem_getpage
0 +568 568 . pdflush
0 +552 552 . tick_notify
0 +552 552 . partition_sched_domains
0 +552 552 . free_sched_groups
0 +552 552 . __percpu_alloc_mask
0 +544 544 . taskstats_user_cmd
0 +536 536 . sched_init_smp
0 +536 536 . pci_device_probe
0 +536 536 . cpuset_common_file_read
0 +536 536 . cpupri_find
0 +536 536 . acpi_processor_ffh_cstate_probe
0 +536 536 . __cpu_disable
0 +520 520 . uv_send_IPI_all
0 +520 520 . tick_do_broadcast
0 +520 520 . smp_call_function
0 +520 520 . show_related_cpus
0 +520 520 . show_affected_cpus
0 +520 520 . prof_cpu_mask_write_proc
0 +520 520 . physflat_send_IPI_mask
0 +520 520 . physflat_send_IPI_all
0 +520 520 . native_smp_send_reschedule
0 +520 520 . native_send_call_func_single_ipi
0 +520 520 . lapic_timer_broadcast
0 +520 520 . irq_set_affinity
0 +520 520 . flat_vector_allocation_domain
0 +520 520 . flat_send_IPI_all
0 +520 520 . find_lowest_rq
0 +520 520 . cpuset_can_attach
0 +520 520 . cpu_callback
0 +520 520 . compat_sys_sched_setaffinity
0 +520 520 . add_del_listener
0 +512 512 . sys_sched_setaffinity
0 +512 512 . sys_sched_getaffinity
0 +512 512 . run_rebalance_domains
0 +512 512 . ioapic_retrigger_irq
0 +512 512 . generic_processor_info
0 +512 512 . force_quiescent_state
0 +512 512 . destroy_irq
0 +512 512 . default_affinity_write
0 +512 512 . cpu_to_phys_group
0 +512 512 . cpu_to_allnodes_group
0 +512 512 . compat_sys_sched_getaffinity
0 +512 512 . check_preempt_curr_rt
0 +512 512 . assign_irq_vector
0 +92248 92248 +0% Totals

====== MemInfo ()
... files 0 vars 0 all 0 lim 0 unch 0

(runtime meminfo not collected.)


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