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SubjectRe: [RFC PATCH 1/4] kmemtrace: Core implementation.
Hi,

[Adding Randy to cc for the Documentation/ parts and Matt for the core.]

On Thu, Jul 17, 2008 at 3:46 AM, Eduard - Gabriel Munteanu
<eduard.munteanu@linux360.ro> wrote:
> kmemtrace provides tracing for slab allocator functions, such as kmalloc,
> kfree, kmem_cache_alloc, kmem_cache_free etc.. Collected data is then fed
> to the userspace application in order to analyse allocation hotspots,
> internal fragmentation and so on, making it possible to see how well an
> allocator performs, as well as debug and profile kernel code.
>
> Signed-off-by: Eduard - Gabriel Munteanu <eduard.munteanu@linux360.ro>
> ---
> Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt | 6 +
> Documentation/vm/kmemtrace.txt | 96 ++++++++++++++++
> MAINTAINERS | 6 +
> include/linux/kmemtrace.h | 110 ++++++++++++++++++
> init/main.c | 2 +
> lib/Kconfig.debug | 4 +
> mm/Makefile | 2 +-
> mm/kmemtrace.c | 208 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 8 files changed, 433 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/kmemtrace.txt
> create mode 100644 include/linux/kmemtrace.h
> create mode 100644 mm/kmemtrace.c
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
> index b52f47d..b230aff 100644
> --- a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
> @@ -49,6 +49,7 @@ parameter is applicable:
> ISAPNP ISA PnP code is enabled.
> ISDN Appropriate ISDN support is enabled.
> JOY Appropriate joystick support is enabled.
> + KMEMTRACE kmemtrace is enabled.
> LIBATA Libata driver is enabled
> LP Printer support is enabled.
> LOOP Loopback device support is enabled.
> @@ -941,6 +942,11 @@ and is between 256 and 4096 characters. It is defined in the file
> use the HighMem zone if it exists, and the Normal
> zone if it does not.
>
> + kmemtrace.subbufs=n [KNL,KMEMTRACE] Overrides the number of
> + subbufs kmemtrace's relay channel has. Set this
> + higher than default (KMEMTRACE_N_SUBBUFS in code) if
> + you experience buffer overruns.
> +
> movablecore=nn[KMG] [KNL,X86-32,IA-64,PPC,X86-64] This parameter
> is similar to kernelcore except it specifies the
> amount of memory used for migratable allocations.
> diff --git a/Documentation/vm/kmemtrace.txt b/Documentation/vm/kmemtrace.txt
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..1147ecb
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/vm/kmemtrace.txt
> @@ -0,0 +1,96 @@
> + kmemtrace - Kernel Memory Tracer
> +
> + by Eduard - Gabriel Munteanu
> + <eduard.munteanu@linux360.ro>
> +

A chapter on what kmemtrace is here would probably be helpful.

> +
> +I. Design and goals
> +===================
> +
> +kmemtrace was designed to handle rather large amounts of data. Thus, it uses
> +the relay interface to export whatever is logged to userspace, which then
> +stores it. Analysis and reporting is done asynchronously, that is, after the
> +data is collected and stored. By design, it allows one to log and analyse
> +on different machines and different arches.
> +
> +As this is a debugging feature, kmemtrace's ABI is not designed to be very
> +stable, although this may happen in the future if it's deemed mature and
> +sufficient. So the userspace tool does not contain a copy of the kernel
> +header. Instead, the ABI allows checking if the logged data matches the
> +userspace tool. Well, what I said about ABI stability isn't totally true:
> +while I've tried hard to cover all possible (and useful) use cases, I don't
> +want it frozen in the current state. I anticipate the ABI will be _quite_
> +stable, even across multiple stable kernel versions, but I don't make any
> +guarantees regarding this matter.
> +
> +Summary of design goals:
> + - allow logging and analysis to be done across different machines
> + - be fast and anticipate usage in high-load environments (*)
> + - be reasonably extensible
> + - have a _reasonably_ (not completely) stable ABI
> +
> +(*) - one of the reasons Pekka Enberg's original userspace data analysis
> + tool's code was rewritten from Perl to C (although this is more than a
> + simple conversion)
> +
> +
> +II. Quick usage guide
> +=====================
> +
> +1) Get a kernel that supports kmemtrace and build it accordingly (i.e. enable
> +CONFIG_KMEMTRACE).
> +
> +2) Get the userspace tool and build it:
> +$ git-clone git://repo.or.cz/kmemtrace-user.git # current repository
> +$ cd kmemtrace-user/
> +$ autoreconf
> +$ ./configure # Supply KERNEL_SOURCES=/path/to/sources/ if you're
> + # _not_ running this on a kmemtrace-enabled kernel.
> +$ make

As I mentioned in private, I would prefer we drop autoconf from the
userspace tool, but maybe that's just my personal preference.

> +
> +3) Boot the kmemtrace-enabled kernel if you haven't, preferably in the
> +'single' runlevel (so that relay buffers don't fill up easily), and run
> +kmemtrace:
> +# '$' does not mean user, but root here.
> +$ mount -t debugfs none /debug
> +$ mount -t proc none /proc
> +$ cd path/to/kmemtrace-user/
> +$ ./kmemtraced
> +Wait a bit, then stop it with CTRL+C.
> +$ cat /debug/kmemtrace/total_overruns # Check if we didn't overrun, should
> + # be zero.
> +$ (Optionally) [Run kmemtrace_check separately on each cpu[0-9]*.out file to
> + check its correctness]
> +$ ./kmemtrace-report
> +
> +Now you should have a nice and short summary of how the allocator performs.
> +
> +III. FAQ and known issues
> +=========================
> +Q: 'cat /debug/kmemtrace/total_overruns' is non-zero, how do I fix this?
> +Should I worry?
> +A: If it's non-zero, this affects kmemtrace's accuracy, depending on how
> +large the number is. You can fix it by supplying a higher
> +'kmemtrace.subbufs=N' kernel parameter.
> +---
> +
> +Q: kmemtrace_check reports errors, how do I fix this? Should I worry?
> +A: This is a bug and should be reported. It can occur for a variety of
> +reasons:
> + - possible bugs in relay code
> + - possible misuse of relay by kmemtrace
> + - timestamps being collected unorderly
> +Or you may fix it yourself and send us a patch.
> +---
> +
> +Q: kmemtrace_report shows many errors, how do I fix this? Should I worry?
> +A: This is a known issue and I'm working on it. These might be true errors
> +in kernel code, which may have inconsistent behavior (e.g. allocating memory
> +with kmem_cache_alloc() and freeing it with kfree()). Pekka Enberg pointed
> +out this behavior may work with SLAB, but may fail with other allocators.
> +
> +It may also be due to lack of tracing in some unusual allocator functions.
> +
> +We don't want bug reports regarding this issue yet.
> +---

I think you're supposed to document the actual filesystem in
Documentation/ABI as well.

> +
> diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
> index 56a2f67..e967bc2 100644
> --- a/MAINTAINERS
> +++ b/MAINTAINERS
> @@ -2425,6 +2425,12 @@ M: jason.wessel@windriver.com
> L: kgdb-bugreport@lists.sourceforge.net
> S: Maintained
>
> +KMEMTRACE
> +P: Eduard - Gabriel Munteanu
> +M: eduard.munteanu@linux360.ro
> +L: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
> +S: Maintained
> +
> KPROBES
> P: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli
> M: ananth@in.ibm.com
> diff --git a/include/linux/kmemtrace.h b/include/linux/kmemtrace.h
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..da69d22
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/include/linux/kmemtrace.h
> @@ -0,0 +1,110 @@
> +/*
> + * Copyright (C) 2008 Eduard - Gabriel Munteanu
> + *
> + * This file is released under GPL version 2.
> + */
> +
> +#ifndef _LINUX_KMEMTRACE_H
> +#define _LINUX_KMEMTRACE_H
> +
> +#include <linux/types.h>
> +
> +/* ABI definition starts here. */
> +
> +#define KMEMTRACE_ABI_VERSION 1
> +
> +enum kmemtrace_event_id {
> + KMEMTRACE_EVENT_NULL = 0, /* Erroneous event. */

I don't think this is used anywhere so why not drop it?

> + KMEMTRACE_EVENT_ALLOC,
> + KMEMTRACE_EVENT_FREE,
> +};
> +
> +enum kmemtrace_type_id {
> + KMEMTRACE_TYPE_KERNEL = 0, /* kmalloc() / kfree(). */
> + KMEMTRACE_TYPE_CACHE, /* kmem_cache_*(). */
> + KMEMTRACE_TYPE_PAGES, /* __get_free_pages() and friends. */

I still think kernel vs. cache is confusing because both allocations
*are* for the kernel. So perhaps kmalloc vs. cache?

> +};
> +
> +struct kmemtrace_event {

So why don't we have the ABI version embedded here like blktrace has
so that user-space can check if the format matches its expectations?
That should be future-proof as well: as long as y ou keep the existing
fields where they're at now, you can always add new fields at the end
of the struct.

> + __u16 event_id; /* Allocate or free? */
> + __u16 type_id; /* Kind of allocation/free. */
> + __s32 node; /* Target CPU. */
> + __u64 call_site; /* Caller address. */
> + __u64 ptr; /* Pointer to allocation. */
> + __u64 bytes_req; /* Number of bytes requested. */
> + __u64 bytes_alloc; /* Number of bytes allocated. */
> + __u64 gfp_flags; /* Requested flags. */
> + __s64 timestamp; /* When the operation occured in ns. */
> +} __attribute__ ((__packed__));
> +
> +/* End of ABI definition. */
> +
> +#ifdef __KERNEL__
> +
> +#include <linux/marker.h>
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_KMEMTRACE
> +
> +extern void kmemtrace_init(void);
> +
> +static inline void kmemtrace_mark_alloc_node(enum kmemtrace_type_id type_id,
> + unsigned long call_site,
> + const void *ptr,
> + size_t bytes_req,
> + size_t bytes_alloc,
> + unsigned long gfp_flags,
> + int node)
> +{
> + trace_mark(kmemtrace_alloc, "type_id %d call_site %lu ptr %lu "
> + "bytes_req %lu bytes_alloc %lu gfp_flags %lu node %d",
> + type_id, call_site, (unsigned long) ptr,
> + bytes_req, bytes_alloc, gfp_flags, node);
> +}
> +
> +static inline void kmemtrace_mark_free(enum kmemtrace_type_id type_id,
> + unsigned long call_site,
> + const void *ptr)
> +{
> + trace_mark(kmemtrace_free, "type_id %d call_site %lu ptr %lu",
> + type_id, call_site, (unsigned long) ptr);
> +}
> +
> +#else /* CONFIG_KMEMTRACE */
> +
> +static inline void kmemtrace_init(void)
> +{
> +}
> +
> +static inline void kmemtrace_mark_alloc_node(enum kmemtrace_type_id type_id,
> + unsigned long call_site,
> + const void *ptr,
> + size_t bytes_req,
> + size_t bytes_alloc,
> + unsigned long gfp_flags,
> + int node)
> +{
> +}
> +
> +static inline void kmemtrace_mark_free(enum kmemtrace_type_id type_id,
> + unsigned long call_site,
> + const void *ptr)
> +{
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_KMEMTRACE */
> +
> +static inline void kmemtrace_mark_alloc(enum kmemtrace_type_id type_id,
> + unsigned long call_site,
> + const void *ptr,
> + size_t bytes_req,
> + size_t bytes_alloc,
> + unsigned long gfp_flags)
> +{
> + kmemtrace_mark_alloc_node(type_id, call_site, ptr,
> + bytes_req, bytes_alloc, gfp_flags, -1);
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
> +
> +#endif /* _LINUX_KMEMTRACE_H */
> +
> diff --git a/init/main.c b/init/main.c
> index 057f364..c00659c 100644
> --- a/init/main.c
> +++ b/init/main.c
> @@ -66,6 +66,7 @@
> #include <asm/setup.h>
> #include <asm/sections.h>
> #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
> +#include <linux/kmemtrace.h>
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC
> #include <asm/smp.h>
> @@ -641,6 +642,7 @@ asmlinkage void __init start_kernel(void)
> enable_debug_pagealloc();
> cpu_hotplug_init();
> kmem_cache_init();
> + kmemtrace_init();
> debug_objects_mem_init();
> idr_init_cache();
> setup_per_cpu_pageset();
> diff --git a/lib/Kconfig.debug b/lib/Kconfig.debug
> index d2099f4..6bacab5 100644
> --- a/lib/Kconfig.debug
> +++ b/lib/Kconfig.debug
> @@ -674,6 +674,10 @@ config FIREWIRE_OHCI_REMOTE_DMA
>
> If unsure, say N.
>
> +config KMEMTRACE
> + bool "Kernel memory tracer"
> + depends on RELAY && DEBUG_FS && MARKERS
> +
> source "samples/Kconfig"
>
> source "lib/Kconfig.kgdb"
> diff --git a/mm/Makefile b/mm/Makefile
> index 18c143b..d88a3bc 100644
> --- a/mm/Makefile
> +++ b/mm/Makefile
> @@ -33,4 +33,4 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_MIGRATION) += migrate.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += allocpercpu.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_QUICKLIST) += quicklist.o
> obj-$(CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR) += memcontrol.o
> -
> +obj-$(CONFIG_KMEMTRACE) += kmemtrace.o
> diff --git a/mm/kmemtrace.c b/mm/kmemtrace.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..9258010
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/mm/kmemtrace.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,208 @@
> +/*
> + * Copyright (C) 2008 Pekka Enberg, Eduard - Gabriel Munteanu
> + *
> + * This file is released under GPL version 2.
> + */
> +
> +#include <linux/string.h>
> +#include <linux/debugfs.h>
> +#include <linux/relay.h>
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/marker.h>
> +#include <linux/gfp.h>
> +#include <linux/kmemtrace.h>
> +
> +#define KMEMTRACE_SUBBUF_SIZE (8192 * sizeof(struct kmemtrace_event))
> +#define KMEMTRACE_N_SUBBUFS 20
> +
> +static struct rchan *kmemtrace_chan;
> +static u32 kmemtrace_buf_overruns;
> +static unsigned int kmemtrace_n_subbufs;
> +
> +static inline void kmemtrace_log_event(struct kmemtrace_event *event)
> +{
> + relay_write(kmemtrace_chan, event, sizeof(struct kmemtrace_event));
> +}
> +
> +static void kmemtrace_probe_alloc(void *probe_data, void *call_data,
> + const char *format, va_list *args)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct kmemtrace_event ev;
> +
> + /*
> + * Don't convert this to use structure initializers,
> + * C99 does not guarantee the rvalues evaluation order.
> + */
> + ev.event_id = KMEMTRACE_EVENT_ALLOC;
> + ev.type_id = va_arg(*args, int);
> + ev.call_site = va_arg(*args, unsigned long);
> + ev.ptr = va_arg(*args, unsigned long);
> + /* Don't trace ignored allocations. */
> + if (!ev.ptr)
> + return;
> + ev.bytes_req = va_arg(*args, unsigned long);
> + ev.bytes_alloc = va_arg(*args, unsigned long);
> + /* ev.timestamp set below, to preserve event ordering. */
> + ev.gfp_flags = va_arg(*args, unsigned long);
> + ev.node = va_arg(*args, int);
> +
> + local_irq_save(flags);

Why do we disable local irqs here? (Perhaps a comment is in order.)

> + ev.timestamp = ktime_to_ns(ktime_get());
> + kmemtrace_log_event(&ev);
> + local_irq_restore(flags);
> +}
> +
> +static void kmemtrace_probe_free(void *probe_data, void *call_data,
> + const char *format, va_list *args)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + struct kmemtrace_event ev;
> +
> + /*
> + * Don't convert this to use structure initializers,
> + * C99 does not guarantee the rvalues evaluation order.
> + */
> + ev.event_id = KMEMTRACE_EVENT_FREE;
> + ev.type_id = va_arg(*args, int);
> + ev.call_site = va_arg(*args, unsigned long);
> + ev.ptr = va_arg(*args, unsigned long);
> + /* Don't trace ignored allocations. */
> + if (!ev.ptr)
> + return;
> + /* ev.timestamp set below, to preserve event ordering. */
> +
> + local_irq_save(flags);

(same here)

> + ev.timestamp = ktime_to_ns(ktime_get());
> + kmemtrace_log_event(&ev);
> + local_irq_restore(flags);
> +}
> +
> +static struct dentry *
> +kmemtrace_create_buf_file(const char *filename, struct dentry *parent,
> + int mode, struct rchan_buf *buf, int *is_global)
> +{
> + return debugfs_create_file(filename, mode, parent, buf,
> + &relay_file_operations);
> +}
> +
> +static int kmemtrace_remove_buf_file(struct dentry *dentry)
> +{
> + debugfs_remove(dentry);
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static int kmemtrace_count_overruns(struct rchan_buf *buf,
> + void *subbuf, void *prev_subbuf,
> + size_t prev_padding)
> +{
> + if (relay_buf_full(buf)) {
> + kmemtrace_buf_overruns++;
> + return 0;
> + }
> +
> + return 1;
> +}
> +
> +static struct rchan_callbacks relay_callbacks = {
> + .create_buf_file = kmemtrace_create_buf_file,
> + .remove_buf_file = kmemtrace_remove_buf_file,
> + .subbuf_start = kmemtrace_count_overruns,
> +};
> +
> +static struct dentry *kmemtrace_dir;
> +static struct dentry *kmemtrace_overruns_dentry;
> +
> +static void kmemtrace_cleanup(void)
> +{
> + relay_close(kmemtrace_chan);
> + marker_probe_unregister("kmemtrace_alloc",
> + kmemtrace_probe_alloc, NULL);
> + marker_probe_unregister("kmemtrace_free",
> + kmemtrace_probe_free, NULL);
> + if (kmemtrace_overruns_dentry)
> + debugfs_remove(kmemtrace_overruns_dentry);
> +}
> +
> +static int __init kmemtrace_setup_late(void)
> +{
> + if (!kmemtrace_chan)
> + goto failed;
> +
> + kmemtrace_dir = debugfs_create_dir("kmemtrace", NULL);
> + if (!kmemtrace_dir)
> + goto cleanup;
> +
> + kmemtrace_overruns_dentry =
> + debugfs_create_u32("total_overruns", S_IRUSR,
> + kmemtrace_dir, &kmemtrace_buf_overruns);
> + if (!kmemtrace_overruns_dentry)
> + goto dir_cleanup;
> +
> + if (relay_late_setup_files(kmemtrace_chan, "cpu", kmemtrace_dir))
> + goto overrun_cleanup;
> +
> + printk(KERN_INFO "kmemtrace: fully up.\n");
> +
> + return 0;
> +
> +overrun_cleanup:
> + debugfs_remove(kmemtrace_overruns_dentry);
> + kmemtrace_overruns_dentry = NULL;
> +dir_cleanup:
> + debugfs_remove(kmemtrace_dir);
> +cleanup:
> + kmemtrace_cleanup();
> +failed:
> + return 1;
> +}
> +late_initcall(kmemtrace_setup_late);
> +
> +static int __init kmemtrace_set_subbuf_size(char *str)
> +{
> + get_option(&str, &kmemtrace_n_subbufs);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +early_param("kmemtrace.subbufs", kmemtrace_set_subbuf_size);
> +
> +void kmemtrace_init(void)
> +{
> + int err;
> +
> + if (!kmemtrace_n_subbufs)
> + kmemtrace_n_subbufs = KMEMTRACE_N_SUBBUFS;
> +
> + kmemtrace_chan = relay_open(NULL, NULL, KMEMTRACE_SUBBUF_SIZE,
> + kmemtrace_n_subbufs, &relay_callbacks,
> + NULL);
> + if (!kmemtrace_chan) {
> + printk(KERN_INFO "kmemtrace: could not open relay channel\n");
> + return;
> + }
> +
> + err = marker_probe_register("kmemtrace_alloc", "type_id %d "
> + "call_site %lu ptr %lu "
> + "bytes_req %lu bytes_alloc %lu "
> + "gfp_flags %lu node %d",
> + kmemtrace_probe_alloc, NULL);
> + if (err)
> + goto probe_alloc_fail;
> + err = marker_probe_register("kmemtrace_free", "type_id %d "
> + "call_site %lu ptr %lu",
> + kmemtrace_probe_free, NULL);
> + if (err)
> + goto probe_free_fail;
> +
> + printk(KERN_INFO "kmemtrace: early init successful.\n");
> + return;
> +
> +probe_free_fail:
> + err = marker_probe_unregister("kmemtrace_alloc",
> + kmemtrace_probe_alloc, NULL);
> + printk(KERN_INFO "kmemtrace: could not register marker probes!\n");
> +probe_alloc_fail:
> + relay_close(kmemtrace_chan);
> + kmemtrace_chan = NULL;
> +}
> +
> --
> 1.5.6.1
>
> --
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