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SubjectRe: gettimeofday() jumping into the future
On Thu, 23 Aug 2007, Michael Smith wrote:

> We've been seeing some strange behaviour on some of our applications
> recently. I've tracked this down to gettimeofday() returning spurious
> values occasionally.
>
> Specifically, gettimeofday() will suddenly, for a single call, return
> a value about 4398 seconds (~1 hour 13 minutes) in the future. The
> following call goes back to a normal value.

I have also seen this.

> This seems to be occurring when the clock source goes slightly
> backwards for a single call. In
> kernel/time/timekeeping.c:__get_nsec_offset(), we have this:
> cycle_delta = (cycle_now - clock->cycle_last) & clock->mask;
>
> So a small decrease in time here will (this is all unsigned
> arithmetic) give us a very large cycle_delta. cyc2ns() then multiplies
> this by some value, then right shifts by 22. The resulting value (in
> nanoseconds) is approximately 4398 seconds; this gets added on to the
> xtime value, giving us our jump into the future. The next call to
> gettimeofday() returns to normal as we don't have this huge nanosecond
> offset.

Indeed. I don't know where the suggestion of off by 2^32us came in
later in this thread. As you've already pointed out, it's off by
2^42ns.

I've no idea why the TSC might go backwards, but perhaps we should not
break horribly if it does. How about treating it as zero?

diff -urN linux-2.6.24.4/include/linux/clocksource.h linux/include/linux/clocksource.h
--- linux-2.6.24.4/include/linux/clocksource.h 2008-03-24 18:49:18.000000000 +0000
+++ linux/include/linux/clocksource.h 2008-03-28 11:15:02.000000000 +0000
@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@
*
* XXX - This could use some mult_lxl_ll() asm optimization
*/
-static inline s64 cyc2ns(struct clocksource *cs, cycle_t cycles)
+static inline u64 cyc2ns(struct clocksource *cs, cycle_t cycles)
{
u64 ret = (u64)cycles;
ret = (ret * cs->mult) >> cs->shift;
diff -urN linux-2.6.24.4/kernel/time/timekeeping.c linux/kernel/time/timekeeping.c
--- linux-2.6.24.4/kernel/time/timekeeping.c 2008-03-24 18:49:18.000000000 +0000
+++ linux/kernel/time/timekeeping.c 2008-03-28 11:15:01.000000000 +0000
@@ -64,14 +64,17 @@
* called. Returns the number of nanoseconds since the
* last call to update_wall_time() (adjusted by NTP scaling)
*/
-static inline s64 __get_nsec_offset(void)
+static inline u64 __get_nsec_offset(void)
{
cycle_t cycle_now, cycle_delta;
- s64 ns_offset;
+ u64 ns_offset;

/* read clocksource: */
cycle_now = clocksource_read(clock);

+ if (cycle_now < clock->cycle_last)
+ return 0;
+
/* calculate the delta since the last update_wall_time: */
cycle_delta = (cycle_now - clock->cycle_last) & clock->mask;

@@ -91,7 +94,7 @@
static inline void __get_realtime_clock_ts(struct timespec *ts)
{
unsigned long seq;
- s64 nsecs;
+ u64 nsecs;

do {
seq = read_seqbegin(&xtime_lock);
@@ -207,7 +210,7 @@
}
#else
static inline void change_clocksource(void) { }
-static inline s64 __get_nsec_offset(void) { return 0; }
+static inline u64 __get_nsec_offset(void) { return 0; }
#endif

/**
@@ -272,7 +275,7 @@
/* time in seconds when suspend began */
static unsigned long timekeeping_suspend_time;
/* xtime offset when we went into suspend */
-static s64 timekeeping_suspend_nsecs;
+static u64 timekeeping_suspend_nsecs;

/**
* timekeeping_resume - Resumes the generic timekeeping subsystem.



Alternatively, we could try to make it work and have gettimeofday jump
back slightly in this case, but I don't like this as much, because I
think it's more complicated, slower and unnecessary.

diff -urN linux-2.6.24.4/arch/x86/vdso/vclock_gettime.c linux/arch/x86/vdso/vclock_gettime.c
--- linux-2.6.24.4/arch/x86/vdso/vclock_gettime.c 2008-03-24 18:49:18.000000000 +0000
+++ linux/arch/x86/vdso/vclock_gettime.c 2008-03-28 12:15:24.000000000 +0000
@@ -43,7 +43,8 @@

static noinline int do_realtime(struct timespec *ts)
{
- unsigned long seq, ns;
+ unsigned long seq;
+ long ns;
do {
seq = read_seqbegin(&gtod->lock);
ts->tv_sec = gtod->wall_time_sec;
diff -urN linux-2.6.24.4/include/linux/clocksource.h linux/include/linux/clocksource.h
--- linux-2.6.24.4/include/linux/clocksource.h 2008-03-24 18:49:18.000000000 +0000
+++ linux/include/linux/clocksource.h 2008-03-28 11:59:05.000000000 +0000
@@ -176,11 +176,9 @@
*
* XXX - This could use some mult_lxl_ll() asm optimization
*/
-static inline s64 cyc2ns(struct clocksource *cs, cycle_t cycles)
+static inline s64 cyc2ns(struct clocksource *cs, s64 cycles)
{
- u64 ret = (u64)cycles;
- ret = (ret * cs->mult) >> cs->shift;
- return ret;
+ return (cycles * cs->mult) >> cs->shift;
}

/**
diff -urN linux-2.6.24.4/include/linux/time.h linux/include/linux/time.h
--- linux-2.6.24.4/include/linux/time.h 2008-03-24 18:49:18.000000000 +0000
+++ linux/include/linux/time.h 2008-03-28 11:59:06.000000000 +0000
@@ -169,13 +169,17 @@
* @a: pointer to timespec to be incremented
* @ns: unsigned nanoseconds value to be added
*/
-static inline void timespec_add_ns(struct timespec *a, u64 ns)
+static inline void timespec_add_ns(struct timespec *a, s64 ns)
{
ns += a->tv_nsec;
while(unlikely(ns >= NSEC_PER_SEC)) {
ns -= NSEC_PER_SEC;
a->tv_sec++;
}
+ while(unlikely(ns < 0)) {
+ ns += NSEC_PER_SEC;
+ a->tv_sec--;
+ }
a->tv_nsec = ns;
}
#endif /* __KERNEL__ */
diff -urN linux-2.6.24.4/kernel/time/timekeeping.c linux/kernel/time/timekeeping.c
--- linux-2.6.24.4/kernel/time/timekeeping.c 2008-03-24 18:49:18.000000000 +0000
+++ linux/kernel/time/timekeeping.c 2008-03-28 12:31:48.000000000 +0000
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
static unsigned long total_sleep_time; /* seconds */

static struct timespec xtime_cache __attribute__ ((aligned (16)));
-static inline void update_xtime_cache(u64 nsec)
+static inline void update_xtime_cache(s64 nsec)
{
xtime_cache = xtime;
timespec_add_ns(&xtime_cache, nsec);
@@ -66,8 +66,8 @@
*/
static inline s64 __get_nsec_offset(void)
{
- cycle_t cycle_now, cycle_delta;
- s64 ns_offset;
+ cycle_t cycle_now;
+ s64 ns_offset, cycle_delta;

/* read clocksource: */
cycle_now = clocksource_read(clock);
@@ -75,6 +75,12 @@
/* calculate the delta since the last update_wall_time: */
cycle_delta = (cycle_now - clock->cycle_last) & clock->mask;

+ /* Sign-extend. */
+ if (cycle_now < clock->cycle_last)
+ {
+ cycle_delta |= ~clock->mask;
+ }
+
/* convert to nanoseconds: */
ns_offset = cyc2ns(clock, cycle_delta);

@@ -182,7 +188,7 @@
{
struct clocksource *new;
cycle_t now;
- u64 nsec;
+ s64 nsec;

new = clocksource_get_next();

@@ -455,7 +461,17 @@
return;

#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_TIME
- offset = (clocksource_read(clock) - clock->cycle_last) & clock->mask;
+ offset = clocksource_read(clock) - clock->cycle_last;
+
+ /* Mask but preserving sign. */
+ if (offset < 0)
+ {
+ offset = (offset & clock->mask) | ~clock->mask;
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ offset &= clock->mask;
+ }
#else
offset = clock->cycle_interval;
#endif
@@ -464,7 +480,7 @@
/* normally this loop will run just once, however in the
* case of lost or late ticks, it will accumulate correctly.
*/
- while (offset >= clock->cycle_interval) {
+ while (offset >= (s64)clock->cycle_interval) {
/* accumulate one interval */
clock->xtime_nsec += clock->xtime_interval;
clock->cycle_last += clock->cycle_interval;




--
Tim
Quidquid latine dictum sit, altum viditur.


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