lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2008]   [Nov]   [26]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
/
Date
From
Subject[PATCH 0/6] fs: Scalability of sockets/pipes allocation/deallocation on SMP
Hi all

Short summary : Nice speedups for allocation/deallocation of sockets/pipes
(From 27.5 seconds to 1.6 second)

Long version :

To allocate a socket or a pipe we :

0) Do the usual file table manipulation (pretty scalable these days,
but would be faster if 'struct files' were using SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU
and avoid call_rcu() cache killer)

1) allocate an inode with new_inode()
This function :
- locks inode_lock,
- dirties nr_inodes counter
- dirties inode_in_use list (for sockets/pipes, this is useless)
- dirties superblock s_inodes.
- dirties last_ino counter
All these are in different cache lines unfortunatly.

2) allocate a dentry
d_alloc() takes dcache_lock,
insert dentry on its parent list (dirtying sock_mnt->mnt_sb->s_root)
dirties nr_dentry

3) d_instantiate() dentry (dcache_lock taken again)

4) init_file() -> atomic_inc() on sock_mnt->refcount


At close() time, we must undo the things. Its even more expensive because
of the _atomic_dec_and_lock() that stress a lot, and because of two cache
lines that are touched when an element is deleted from a list
(previous and next items)

This is really bad, since sockets/pipes dont need to be visible in dcache
or an inode list per super block.

This patch series get rid of all contended cache lines for sockets, pipes
and anonymous fd (signalfd, timerfd, ...)

Sample program :

for (i = 0; i < 1000000; i++)
close(socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0));
Cost if one cpu runs the program :

real 1.561s
user 0.092s
sys 1.469s

Cost if 8 processes are launched on a 8 CPU machine
(benchmark named socket8) :

real 27.496s <<<< !!!! >>>>
user 0.657s
sys 3m39.092s
Oprofile results (for the 8 process run, 3 times):

CPU: Core 2, speed 3000.03 MHz (estimated)
Counted CPU_CLK_UNHALTED events (Clock cycles when not halted) with a unit
mask of 0x00 (Unhalted core cycles) count 100000
samples cum. samples % cum. % symbol name
3347352 3347352 28.0232 28.0232 _atomic_dec_and_lock
3301428 6648780 27.6388 55.6620 d_instantiate
2971130 9619910 24.8736 80.5355 d_alloc
241318 9861228 2.0203 82.5558 init_file
146190 10007418 1.2239 83.7797 __slab_free
144149 10151567 1.2068 84.9864 inotify_d_instantiate
143971 10295538 1.2053 86.1917 inet_create
137168 10432706 1.1483 87.3401 new_inode
117549 10550255 0.9841 88.3242 add_partial
110795 10661050 0.9275 89.2517 generic_drop_inode
107137 10768187 0.8969 90.1486 kmem_cache_alloc
94029 10862216 0.7872 90.9358 tcp_close
82837 10945053 0.6935 91.6293 dput
67486 11012539 0.5650 92.1943 dentry_iput
57751 11070290 0.4835 92.6778 iput
54327 11124617 0.4548 93.1326 tcp_v4_init_sock
49921 11174538 0.4179 93.5505 sysenter_past_esp
47616 11222154 0.3986 93.9491 kmem_cache_free
30792 11252946 0.2578 94.2069 clear_inode
27540 11280486 0.2306 94.4375 copy_from_user
26509 11306995 0.2219 94.6594 init_timer
26363 11333358 0.2207 94.8801 discard_slab
25284 11358642 0.2117 95.0918 __fput
22482 11381124 0.1882 95.2800 __percpu_counter_add
20369 11401493 0.1705 95.4505 sock_alloc
18501 11419994 0.1549 95.6054 inet_csk_destroy_sock
17923 11437917 0.1500 95.7555 sys_close

This patch serie avoids all contented cache lines and makes this "bench"
pretty fast.


New cost if run on one cpu :

real 1.325s (instead of 1.561s)
user 0.091s
sys 1.234s


If run on 8 CPUS :

real 2.229s <<<< instead of 27.496s >>>
user 0.695s
sys 16.903s

Oprofile results (for the 8 process run, 3 times):
CPU: Core 2, speed 2999.74 MHz (estimated)
Counted CPU_CLK_UNHALTED events (Clock cycles when not halted) with a unit
mask of 0x00 (Unhalted core cycles) count 100000
samples cum. samples % cum. % symbol name
143791 143791 11.7849 11.7849 __slab_free
128404 272195 10.5238 22.3087 add_partial
99150 371345 8.1262 30.4349 kmem_cache_alloc
52031 423376 4.2644 34.6993 sysenter_past_esp
47752 471128 3.9137 38.6130 kmem_cache_free
47429 518557 3.8872 42.5002 tcp_close
34376 552933 2.8174 45.3176 __percpu_counter_add
29046 581979 2.3806 47.6982 copy_from_user
28249 610228 2.3152 50.0134 init_timer
26220 636448 2.1490 52.1624 __slab_alloc
23402 659850 1.9180 54.0803 discard_slab
20560 680410 1.6851 55.7654 __call_rcu
18288 698698 1.4989 57.2643 d_alloc
16425 715123 1.3462 58.6104 get_empty_filp
16237 731360 1.3308 59.9412 __fput
15729 747089 1.2891 61.2303 alloc_fd
15021 762110 1.2311 62.4614 alloc_inode
14690 776800 1.2040 63.6654 sys_close
14666 791466 1.2020 64.8674 inet_create
13638 805104 1.1178 65.9852 dput
12503 817607 1.0247 67.0099 iput_special
12231 829838 1.0024 68.0123 lock_sock_nested
12210 842048 1.0007 69.0130 fd_install
12137 854185 0.9947 70.0078 d_alloc_special
12058 866243 0.9883 70.9960 sock_init_data
11200 877443 0.9179 71.9140 release_sock
11114 888557 0.9109 72.8248 inotify_d_instantiate
The last point is about SLUB being hit hard, unless we
use slub_min_order=3 at boot, or we use Christoph Lameter
patch (struct file RCU optimizations)
http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/418615

If we boot machine with slub_min_order=3, SLUB overhead disappears.

New cost if run on one cpu :

real 1.307s
user 0.094s
sys 1.214s

If run on 8 CPUS :

real 1.625s <<<< instead of 27.496s or 2.229s >>>
user 0.771s
sys 12.061s

Oprofile results (for the 8 process run, 3 times):
CPU: Core 2, speed 3000.05 MHz (estimated)
Counted CPU_CLK_UNHALTED events (Clock cycles when not halted) with a unit
mask of 0x00 (Unhalted core cycles) count 100000
samples cum. samples % cum. % symbol name
108005 108005 11.0758 11.0758 kmem_cache_alloc
52023 160028 5.3349 16.4107 sysenter_past_esp
47363 207391 4.8570 21.2678 tcp_close
45430 252821 4.6588 25.9266 kmem_cache_free
36566 289387 3.7498 29.6764 __percpu_counter_add
36085 325472 3.7005 33.3769 __slab_free
29185 354657 2.9929 36.3698 copy_from_user
28210 382867 2.8929 39.2627 init_timer
25663 408530 2.6317 41.8944 d_alloc_special
22360 430890 2.2930 44.1874 cap_file_alloc_security
19237 450127 1.9727 46.1601 __call_rcu
19097 469224 1.9584 48.1185 d_alloc
16962 486186 1.7394 49.8580 alloc_fd
16315 502501 1.6731 51.5311 __fput
16102 518603 1.6512 53.1823 get_empty_filp
14954 533557 1.5335 54.7158 inet_create
14468 548025 1.4837 56.1995 alloc_inode
14198 562223 1.4560 57.6555 sys_close
13905 576128 1.4259 59.0814 dput
12262 588390 1.2575 60.3389 lock_sock_nested
12203 600593 1.2514 61.5903 sock_attach_fd
12147 612740 1.2457 62.8360 iput_special
12049 624789 1.2356 64.0716 fd_install
12033 636822 1.2340 65.3056 sock_init_data
11999 648821 1.2305 66.5361 release_sock
11231 660052 1.1517 67.6878 inotify_d_instantiate
11068 671120 1.1350 68.8228 inet_csk_destroy_sock

This patch serie contains 6 patches, against net-next-2.6 tree
(because this tree already contains network improvement on this
subject, but should apply on other trees)

[PATCH 1/6] fs: Introduce a per_cpu nr_dentry

Adding a per_cpu nr_dentry avoids cache line ping pongs between
cpus to maintain this metric.

We centralize decrements of nr_dentry in d_free(),
and increments in d_alloc().

d_alloc() can avoid taking dcache_lock if parent is NULL


[PATCH 2/6] fs: Introduce special dentries for pipes, socket, anon fd

Sockets, pipes and anonymous fds have interesting properties.

Like other files, they use a dentry and an inode.

But dentries for these kind of files are not hashed into dcache,
since there is no way someone can lookup such a file in the vfs tree.
(/proc/{pid}/fd/{number} uses a different mechanism)
Still, allocating and freeing such dentries are expensive processes,
because we currently take dcache_lock inside d_alloc(), d_instantiate(),
and dput(). This lock is very contended on SMP machines.

This patch defines a new DCACHE_SPECIAL flag, to mark a dentry as
a special one (for sockets, pipes, anonymous fd), and a new
d_alloc_special(const struct qstr *name, struct inode *inode)
method, called by the three subsystems.

Internally, dput() can take a fast path to dput_special() for
special dentries.

Differences betwen a special dentry and a normal one are :

1) Special dentry has the DCACHE_SPECIAL flag
2) Special dentry's parent are themselves
This to avoid taking a reference on 'root' dentry, shared
by too many dentries.
3) They are not hashed into global hash table
4) Their d_alias list is empty

Internally, dput() can avoid an expensive atomic_dec_and_lock()
for special dentries.


(socket8 bench result : from 27.5s to 25.5s)

[PATCH 3/6] fs: Introduce a per_cpu last_ino allocator

new_inode() dirties a contended cache line to get inode numbers.

Solve this problem by providing to each cpu a per_cpu variable,
feeded by the shared last_ino, but once every 1024 allocations.

This reduce contention on the shared last_ino.

Note : last_ino_get() method must be called with preemption disabled.

(socket8 bench result : 25.5s to 25s almost no differences, but
this is because inode_lock cost is too heavy for the moment)

[PATCH 4/6] fs: Introduce a per_cpu nr_inodes

Avoids cache line ping pongs between cpus and prepare next patch,
because updates of nr_inodes dont need inode_lock anymore.

(socket8 bench result : 25s to 20.5s)

[PATCH 5/6] fs: Introduce special inodes

Goal of this patch is to not touch inode_lock for socket/pipes/anonfd
inodes allocation/freeing.

In new_inode(), we test if super block has MS_SPECIAL flag set.
If yes, we dont put inode in "inode_in_use" list nor "sb->s_inodes" list
As inode_lock was taken only to protect these lists, we avoid it as well

Using iput_special() from dput_special() avoids taking inode_lock
at freeing time.

This patch has a very noticeable effect, because we avoid dirtying
of three contended cache lines in new_inode(), and five cache lines
in iput()

Note: Not sure if we can use MS_SPECIAL=MS_NOUSER, or if we
really need a different flag.

(socket8 bench result : from 20.5s to 2.94s)

[PATCH 6/6] fs: Introduce kern_mount_special() to mount special vfs

This function arms a flag (MNT_SPECIAL) on the vfs, to avoid
refcounting on permanent system vfs.
Use this function for sockets, pipes, anonymous fds.

(socket8 bench result : from 2.94s to 2.23s)

Signed-off-by: Eric Dumazet <dada1@cosmosbay.com>
---
Overall diffstat :
fs/anon_inodes.c | 19 +-----
fs/dcache.c | 106 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------
fs/fs-writeback.c | 2
fs/inode.c | 101 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
fs/pipe.c | 28 +---------
fs/super.c | 9 +++
include/linux/dcache.h | 2
include/linux/fs.h | 8 ++
include/linux/mount.h | 5 +
kernel/sysctl.c | 6 +-
mm/page-writeback.c | 2
net/socket.c | 27 +--------
12 files changed, 212 insertions(+), 103 deletions(-)


\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2008-11-27 00:31    [from the cache]
©2003-2011 Jasper Spaans. Advertise on this site