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Subject[RFC v9][PATCH 13/13] Restart multiple processes
Date
Restarting of multiple processes expects all restarting tasks to call
sys_restart(). Once inside the system call, each task will restart
itself at the same order that they were saved. The internals of the
syscall will take care of in-kernel synchronization bewteen tasks.

This patch does _not_ create the task tree in the kernel. Instead it
assumes that all tasks are created in some way and then invoke the
restart syscall. You can use the userspace mktree.c program to do
that.

The init task (*) has a special role: it allocates the resart context
(ctx), and coordinates the operation. In particular, it first waits
until all participating tasks enter the kernel, and provides them the
common restart context. Once everyone in ready, it begins to restart
itself.

In contrast, the other tasks enter the kernel, locate the init task (*)
and grab its restart context, and then wait for their turn to restore.

When a task (init or not) completes its restart, it hands the control
over to the next in line, by waking that task.

An array of pids (the one saved during the checkpoint) is used to
synchronize the operation. The first task in the array is the init
task (*). The restart context (ctx) maintain a "current position" in
the array, which indicates which task is currently active. Once the
currently active task completes its own restart, it increments that
position and wakes up the next task.

Restart assumes that userspace provides meaningful data, otherwise
it's garbage-in-garbage-out. In this case, the syscall may block
indefinitely, but in TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE, so the user can ctrl-c or
otherwise kill the stray restarting tasks.

In terms of security, restart runs as the user the invokes it, so it
will not allow a user to do more than is otherwise permitted by the
usual system semantics and policy.

Currently we ignore threads and zombies, as well as session ids.
Add support for multiple processes

(*) For containers, restart should be called inside a fresh container
by the init task of that container. However, it is also possible to
restart applications not necsesarily inside a container, and without
restoring the original pids of the processes (that is, provided that
the application can tolerate such behavior). This is useful to allow
multi-process restart of tasks not isolated inside a container, and
also for debugging.

Signed-off-by: Oren Laadan <orenl@cs.columbia.edu>
---
checkpoint/restart.c | 216 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
checkpoint/sys.c | 34 ++++++--
include/linux/checkpoint.h | 23 ++++-
include/linux/sched.h | 1 +
4 files changed, 260 insertions(+), 14 deletions(-)

diff --git a/checkpoint/restart.c b/checkpoint/restart.c
index 8bd9d4a..5360c40 100644
--- a/checkpoint/restart.c
+++ b/checkpoint/restart.c
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@

#include <linux/version.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/wait.h>
#include <linux/file.h>
#include <linux/magic.h>
#include <linux/checkpoint.h>
@@ -234,30 +235,237 @@ static int cr_read_task(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
return ret;
}

+/* cr_read_tree - read the tasks tree into the checkpoint context */
+static int cr_read_tree(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
+{
+ struct cr_hdr_tree *hh = cr_hbuf_get(ctx, sizeof(*hh));
+ int parent, size, ret = -EINVAL;
+
+ parent = cr_read_obj_type(ctx, hh, sizeof(*hh), CR_HDR_TREE);
+ if (parent < 0) {
+ ret = parent;
+ goto out;
+ } else if (parent != 0)
+ goto out;
+
+ if (hh->tasks_nr < 0)
+ goto out;
+
+ ctx->pids_nr = hh->tasks_nr;
+ size = sizeof(*ctx->pids_arr) * ctx->pids_nr;
+ if (size < 0) /* overflow ? */
+ goto out;
+
+ ctx->pids_arr = kmalloc(size, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!ctx->pids_arr) {
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ goto out;
+ }
+ ret = cr_kread(ctx, ctx->pids_arr, size);
+ out:
+ cr_hbuf_put(ctx, sizeof(*hh));
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int cr_wait_task(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
+{
+ pid_t pid = task_pid_vnr(current);
+
+ cr_debug("pid %d waiting\n", pid);
+ return wait_event_interruptible(ctx->waitq, ctx->pids_active == pid);
+}
+
+static int cr_next_task(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
+{
+ struct task_struct *tsk;
+
+ ctx->pids_pos++;
+
+ cr_debug("pids_pos %d %d\n", ctx->pids_pos, ctx->pids_nr);
+ if (ctx->pids_pos == ctx->pids_nr) {
+ complete(&ctx->complete);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ ctx->pids_active = ctx->pids_arr[ctx->pids_pos].vpid;
+
+ cr_debug("pids_next %d\n", ctx->pids_active);
+
+ rcu_read_lock();
+ tsk = find_task_by_pid_ns(ctx->pids_active, ctx->root_nsproxy->pid_ns);
+ if (tsk)
+ wake_up_process(tsk);
+ rcu_read_unlock();
+
+ if (!tsk) {
+ ctx->pids_err = -ESRCH;
+ complete(&ctx->complete);
+ return -ESRCH;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/* FIXME: this should be per container */
+DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(cr_restart_waitq);
+
+#define SIG_KERNEL_ONLY_MASK (rt_sigmask(SIGKILL) | rt_sigmask(SIGSTOP))
+
+static int do_restart_task(struct cr_ctx *ctx, pid_t pid)
+{
+ struct task_struct *root_task;
+ int ret;
+
+ rcu_read_lock();
+ root_task = find_task_by_pid_ns(pid, current->nsproxy->pid_ns);
+ if (root_task)
+ get_task_struct(root_task);
+ rcu_read_unlock();
+
+ if (!root_task)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ /*
+ * wait for container init to initailize the restart context, then
+ * grab a reference to that context, and if we're the last task to
+ * do it, notify the container init.
+ */
+ ret = wait_event_interruptible(cr_restart_waitq,
+ root_task->checkpoint_ctx);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ goto out;
+
+ task_lock(root_task);
+ ctx = root_task->checkpoint_ctx;
+ if (ctx)
+ cr_ctx_get(ctx);
+ task_unlock(root_task);
+
+ if (!ctx) {
+ ret = -EAGAIN;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ if (atomic_dec_and_test(&ctx->tasks_count))
+ complete(&ctx->complete);
+
+ /* wait for our turn, do the restore, and tell next task in line */
+ ret = cr_wait_task(ctx);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ goto out;
+ ret = cr_read_task(ctx);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ goto out;
+ ret = cr_next_task(ctx);
+
+ out:
+ cr_ctx_put(ctx);
+ put_task_struct(root_task);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int cr_wait_all_tasks_start(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ if (ctx->pids_nr == 1)
+ return 0;
+
+ init_completion(&ctx->complete);
+ current->checkpoint_ctx = ctx;
+
+ wake_up_all(&cr_restart_waitq);
+
+ ret = wait_for_completion_interruptible(&ctx->complete);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ return ret;
+
+ task_lock(current);
+ current->checkpoint_ctx = NULL;
+ task_unlock(current);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int cr_wait_all_tasks_finish(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ if (ctx->pids_nr == 1)
+ return 0;
+
+ init_completion(&ctx->complete);
+
+ ret = cr_next_task(ctx);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ return ret;
+
+ ret = wait_for_completion_interruptible(&ctx->complete);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ return ret;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
/* setup restart-specific parts of ctx */
static int cr_ctx_restart(struct cr_ctx *ctx, pid_t pid)
{
+ ctx->root_pid = pid;
+ ctx->root_task = current;
+ ctx->root_nsproxy = current->nsproxy;
+
+ get_task_struct(ctx->root_task);
+ get_nsproxy(ctx->root_nsproxy);
+
+ atomic_set(&ctx->tasks_count, ctx->pids_nr - 1);
+
return 0;
}

-int do_restart(struct cr_ctx *ctx, pid_t pid)
+static int do_restart_root(struct cr_ctx *ctx, pid_t pid)
{
int ret;

+ ret = cr_read_head(ctx);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ goto out;
+ ret = cr_read_tree(ctx);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ goto out;
+
ret = cr_ctx_restart(ctx, pid);
if (ret < 0)
goto out;
- ret = cr_read_head(ctx);
+
+ /* wait for all other tasks to enter do_restart_task() */
+ ret = cr_wait_all_tasks_start(ctx);
if (ret < 0)
goto out;
+
ret = cr_read_task(ctx);
if (ret < 0)
goto out;
- ret = cr_read_tail(ctx);
+
+ /* wait for all other tasks to complete do_restart_task() */
+ ret = cr_wait_all_tasks_finish(ctx);
if (ret < 0)
goto out;

- /* on success, adjust the return value if needed [TODO] */
+ ret = cr_read_tail(ctx);
+
out:
return ret;
}
+
+int do_restart(struct cr_ctx *ctx, pid_t pid)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ if (ctx)
+ ret = do_restart_root(ctx, pid);
+ else
+ ret = do_restart_task(ctx, pid);
+
+ /* on success, adjust the return value if needed [TODO] */
+ return ret;
+}
diff --git a/checkpoint/sys.c b/checkpoint/sys.c
index fbaf683..7745500 100644
--- a/checkpoint/sys.c
+++ b/checkpoint/sys.c
@@ -145,6 +145,8 @@ static void cr_task_arr_free(struct cr_ctx *ctx)

static void cr_ctx_free(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
{
+ BUG_ON(atomic_read(&ctx->refcount));
+
if (ctx->file)
fput(ctx->file);

@@ -164,6 +166,8 @@ static void cr_ctx_free(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
if (ctx->root_task)
put_task_struct(ctx->root_task);

+ kfree(ctx->pids_arr);
+
kfree(ctx);
}

@@ -178,7 +182,9 @@ static struct cr_ctx *cr_ctx_alloc(int fd, unsigned long flags)

ctx->flags = flags;

+ atomic_set(&ctx->refcount, 0);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ctx->pgarr_list);
+ init_waitqueue_head(&ctx->waitq);

err = -EBADF;
ctx->file = fget(fd);
@@ -193,6 +199,7 @@ static struct cr_ctx *cr_ctx_alloc(int fd, unsigned long flags)
if (cr_objhash_alloc(ctx) < 0)
goto err;

+ atomic_inc(&ctx->refcount);
return ctx;

err:
@@ -200,6 +207,17 @@ static struct cr_ctx *cr_ctx_alloc(int fd, unsigned long flags)
return ERR_PTR(err);
}

+void cr_ctx_get(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
+{
+ atomic_inc(&ctx->refcount);
+}
+
+void cr_ctx_put(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
+{
+ if (ctx && atomic_dec_and_test(&ctx->refcount))
+ cr_ctx_free(ctx);
+}
+
/**
* sys_checkpoint - checkpoint a container
* @pid: pid of the container init(1) process
@@ -227,7 +245,7 @@ asmlinkage long sys_checkpoint(pid_t pid, int fd, unsigned long flags)
if (!ret)
ret = ctx->crid;

- cr_ctx_free(ctx);
+ cr_ctx_put(ctx);
return ret;
}

@@ -242,7 +260,7 @@ asmlinkage long sys_checkpoint(pid_t pid, int fd, unsigned long flags)
*/
asmlinkage long sys_restart(int crid, int fd, unsigned long flags)
{
- struct cr_ctx *ctx;
+ struct cr_ctx *ctx = NULL;
pid_t pid;
int ret;

@@ -250,15 +268,17 @@ asmlinkage long sys_restart(int crid, int fd, unsigned long flags)
if (flags)
return -EINVAL;

- ctx = cr_ctx_alloc(fd, flags | CR_CTX_RSTR);
- if (IS_ERR(ctx))
- return PTR_ERR(ctx);
-
/* FIXME: for now, we use 'crid' as a pid */
pid = (pid_t) crid;

+ if (pid == task_pid_vnr(current))
+ ctx = cr_ctx_alloc(fd, flags | CR_CTX_RSTR);
+
+ if (IS_ERR(ctx))
+ return PTR_ERR(ctx);
+
ret = do_restart(ctx, pid);

- cr_ctx_free(ctx);
+ cr_ctx_put(ctx);
return ret;
}
diff --git a/include/linux/checkpoint.h b/include/linux/checkpoint.h
index b142171..cab5e19 100644
--- a/include/linux/checkpoint.h
+++ b/include/linux/checkpoint.h
@@ -13,10 +13,11 @@
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/path.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <asm/atomic.h>

#ifdef CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_RESTART

-#define CR_VERSION 2
+#define CR_VERSION 3

struct cr_ctx {
int crid; /* unique checkpoint id */
@@ -34,14 +35,27 @@ struct cr_ctx {
void *hbuf; /* temporary buffer for headers */
int hpos; /* position in headers buffer */

- struct task_struct **tasks_arr; /* array of all tasks in container */
- int tasks_nr; /* size of tasks array */
+ atomic_t refcount;

struct cr_objhash *objhash; /* hash for shared objects */

struct list_head pgarr_list; /* page array to dump VMA contents */

struct path *vfsroot; /* container root (FIXME) */
+
+ /* [multi-process checkpoint] */
+ struct task_struct **tasks_arr; /* array of all tasks [checkpoint] */
+ int tasks_nr; /* size of tasks array */
+
+ /* [multi-process restart] */
+ struct cr_hdr_pids *pids_arr; /* array of all pids [restart] */
+ int pids_nr; /* size of pids array */
+ int pids_pos; /* position pids array */
+ int pids_err; /* error occured ? */
+ pid_t pids_active; /* pid of (next) active task */
+ atomic_t tasks_count; /* sync of restarting tasks */
+ struct completion complete; /* sync of restarting tasks */
+ wait_queue_head_t waitq; /* sync of restarting tasks */
};

/* cr_ctx: flags */
@@ -54,6 +68,9 @@ extern int cr_kread(struct cr_ctx *ctx, void *buf, int count);
extern void *cr_hbuf_get(struct cr_ctx *ctx, int n);
extern void cr_hbuf_put(struct cr_ctx *ctx, int n);

+extern void cr_ctx_get(struct cr_ctx *ctx);
+extern void cr_ctx_put(struct cr_ctx *ctx);
+
/* shared objects handling */

enum {
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index 0c8d02d..cb39066 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -1351,6 +1351,7 @@ struct task_struct {
unsigned long default_timer_slack_ns;
#ifdef CONFIG_CHECKPOINT_RESTART
atomic_t may_checkpoint;
+ struct cr_ctx *checkpoint_ctx;
#endif
};

--
1.5.4.3


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