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Subject[PATCH] trim memory not covered by WB MTRRs
Date
On some machines, buggy BIOSes don't properly setup WB MTRRs to
cover all available RAM, meaning the last few megs (or even gigs)
of memory will be marked uncached. Since Linux tends to allocate
from high memory addresses first, this causes the machine to be
unusably slow as soon as the kernel starts really using memory
(i.e. right around init time).

This patch works around the problem by scanning the MTRRs at
boot and figuring out whether the current end_pfn value (setup
by early e820 code) goes beyond the highest WB MTRR range, and
if so, trimming it to match. A fairly obnoxious KERN_WARNING
is printed too, letting the user know that not all of their
memory is available due to a likely BIOS bug.

Something similar could be done on i386 if needed, but the boot
ordering would be slightly different, since the MTRR code on i386
depends on the boot_cpu_data structure being setup.

This patch incorporates the feedback from Eric and Andi:
- use MAX_VAR_RANGES instead of NUM_VAR_RANGES
- move array declaration to header file as an extern
- add command line disable option "disable_mtrr_trim"
- don't run the trim code if the MTRR default type is cacheable
- don't run the trim code on non-Intel machines

Justin, feel free to test again if you have time and add your
"Tested-by" signoff.

Andi, as for large pages, do you think this is ok as is, or should
I trim a larger granularity? If so, what granularity?

Signed-off-by: Jesse Barnes <jesse.barnes@intel.com>

Thanks,
Jesse

diff --git a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
index 5d0283c..cb728a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -553,6 +553,12 @@ and is between 256 and 4096 characters. It is defined in the file
See drivers/char/README.epca and
Documentation/digiepca.txt.

+ disable_mtrr_trim [X86-64]
+ By default the kernel will trim any uncacheable
+ memory out of your available memory pool based on
+ MTRR settings. This parameter disables that behavior,
+ possibly causing your machine to run very slowly.
+
dmascc= [HW,AX25,SERIAL] AX.25 Z80SCC driver with DMA
support available.
Format: <io_dev0>[,<io_dev1>[,..<io_dev32>]]
diff --git a/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/generic.c b/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/generic.c
index c4ebb51..8eb3085 100644
--- a/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/generic.c
+++ b/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/generic.c
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
#include "mtrr.h"

struct mtrr_state {
- struct mtrr_var_range *var_ranges;
+ struct mtrr_var_range var_ranges[MAX_VAR_RANGES];
mtrr_type fixed_ranges[NUM_FIXED_RANGES];
unsigned char enabled;
unsigned char have_fixed;
@@ -84,12 +84,6 @@ void get_mtrr_state(void)
struct mtrr_var_range *vrs;
unsigned lo, dummy;

- if (!mtrr_state.var_ranges) {
- mtrr_state.var_ranges = kmalloc(num_var_ranges * sizeof (struct mtrr_var_range),
- GFP_KERNEL);
- if (!mtrr_state.var_ranges)
- return;
- }
vrs = mtrr_state.var_ranges;

rdmsr(MTRRcap_MSR, lo, dummy);
diff --git a/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/if.c b/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/if.c
index c7d8f17..0e34a67 100644
--- a/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/if.c
+++ b/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/if.c
@@ -11,10 +11,6 @@
#include <asm/mtrr.h>
#include "mtrr.h"

-/* RED-PEN: this is accessed without any locking */
-extern unsigned int *usage_table;
-
-
#define FILE_FCOUNT(f) (((struct seq_file *)((f)->private_data))->private)

static const char *const mtrr_strings[MTRR_NUM_TYPES] =
diff --git a/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c b/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c
index 7202b98..ef552ba 100644
--- a/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c
+++ b/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c
@@ -38,8 +38,8 @@
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/mutex.h>

+#include <asm/e820.h>
#include <asm/mtrr.h>
-
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/processor.h>
#include <asm/msr.h>
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@

u32 num_var_ranges = 0;

-unsigned int *usage_table;
+unsigned int usage_table[MAX_VAR_RANGES];
static DEFINE_MUTEX(mtrr_mutex);

u64 size_or_mask, size_and_mask;
@@ -121,11 +121,6 @@ static void __init init_table(void)
int i, max;

max = num_var_ranges;
- if ((usage_table = kmalloc(max * sizeof *usage_table, GFP_KERNEL))
- == NULL) {
- printk(KERN_ERR "mtrr: could not allocate\n");
- return;
- }
for (i = 0; i < max; i++)
usage_table[i] = 1;
}
@@ -589,16 +584,11 @@ struct mtrr_value {
unsigned long lsize;
};

-static struct mtrr_value * mtrr_state;
+static struct mtrr_value mtrr_state[MAX_VAR_RANGES];

static int mtrr_save(struct sys_device * sysdev, pm_message_t state)
{
int i;
- int size = num_var_ranges * sizeof(struct mtrr_value);
-
- mtrr_state = kzalloc(size,GFP_ATOMIC);
- if (!mtrr_state)
- return -ENOMEM;

for (i = 0; i < num_var_ranges; i++) {
mtrr_if->get(i,
@@ -620,7 +610,6 @@ static int mtrr_restore(struct sys_device * sysdev)
mtrr_state[i].lsize,
mtrr_state[i].ltype);
}
- kfree(mtrr_state);
return 0;
}

@@ -631,6 +620,57 @@ static struct sysdev_driver mtrr_sysdev_driver = {
.resume = mtrr_restore,
};

+static int disable_mtrr_trim;
+
+static int __init disable_mtrr_trim_setup(char *str)
+{
+ disable_mtrr_trim = 1;
+ return 0;
+}
+early_param("disable_mtrr_trim", disable_mtrr_trim_setup);
+
+/**
+ * mtrr_trim_uncached_memory - trim RAM not covered by MTRRs
+ *
+ * Some buggy BIOSes don't setup the MTRRs properly for systems with certain
+ * memory configurations. This routine checks to make sure the MTRRs having
+ * a write back type cover all of the memory the kernel is intending to use.
+ * If not, it'll trim any memory off the end by adjusting end_pfn, removing
+ * it from the kernel's allocation pools, warning the user with an obnoxious
+ * message.
+ */
+void __init mtrr_trim_uncached_memory(void)
+{
+ unsigned long i, base, size, highest_addr = 0, def, dummy;
+ mtrr_type type;
+
+ /* Make sure we only trim uncachable memory on Intel machines */
+ rdmsr(MTRRdefType_MSR, def, dummy);
+ def &= 0xff;
+ if (!use_intel() || disable_mtrr_trim || def != MTRR_TYPE_UNCACHABLE)
+ return;
+
+ /* Find highest cached pfn */
+ for (i = 0; i < num_var_ranges; i++) {
+ mtrr_if->get(i, &base, &size, &type);
+ if (type != MTRR_TYPE_WRBACK)
+ continue;
+ base <<= PAGE_SHIFT;
+ size <<= PAGE_SHIFT;
+ if (highest_addr < base + size)
+ highest_addr = base + size;
+ }
+
+ if ((highest_addr >> PAGE_SHIFT) != end_pfn) {
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "***************\n");
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "**** WARNING: likely BIOS bug\n");
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "**** MTRRs don't cover all of "
+ "memory, trimmed %ld pages\n", end_pfn -
+ (highest_addr >> PAGE_SHIFT));
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "***************\n");
+ end_pfn = highest_addr >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+ }
+}

/**
* mtrr_bp_init - initialize mtrrs on the boot CPU
diff --git a/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/mtrr.h b/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/mtrr.h
index 289dfe6..627b339 100644
--- a/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/mtrr.h
+++ b/arch/i386/kernel/cpu/mtrr/mtrr.h
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@
#define MTRRphysMask_MSR(reg) (0x200 + 2 * (reg) + 1)

#define NUM_FIXED_RANGES 88
+#define MAX_VAR_RANGES 256
#define MTRRfix64K_00000_MSR 0x250
#define MTRRfix16K_80000_MSR 0x258
#define MTRRfix16K_A0000_MSR 0x259
@@ -34,6 +35,8 @@
an 8 bit field: */
typedef u8 mtrr_type;

+extern unsigned int usage_table[MAX_VAR_RANGES];
+
struct mtrr_ops {
u32 vendor;
u32 use_intel_if;
diff --git a/arch/x86_64/kernel/bugs.c b/arch/x86_64/kernel/bugs.c
index c3c6b91..c138eac 100644
--- a/arch/x86_64/kernel/bugs.c
+++ b/arch/x86_64/kernel/bugs.c
@@ -14,7 +14,6 @@
void __init check_bugs(void)
{
identify_cpu(&boot_cpu_data);
- mtrr_bp_init();
#if !defined(CONFIG_SMP)
printk("CPU: ");
print_cpu_info(&boot_cpu_data);
diff --git a/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup.c b/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup.c
index eb6524f..409b63c 100644
--- a/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup.c
+++ b/arch/x86_64/kernel/setup.c
@@ -266,6 +266,10 @@ void __init setup_arch(char **cmdline_p)
* we are rounding upwards:
*/
end_pfn = e820_end_of_ram();
+ /* Trim memory not covered by WB MTRRs */
+ mtrr_bp_init();
+ mtrr_trim_uncached_memory();
+
num_physpages = end_pfn;

check_efer();
diff --git a/include/asm-x86_64/mtrr.h b/include/asm-x86_64/mtrr.h
index b557c48..cc62bd8 100644
--- a/include/asm-x86_64/mtrr.h
+++ b/include/asm-x86_64/mtrr.h
@@ -78,6 +78,7 @@ extern int mtrr_add_page (unsigned long base, unsigned long size,
unsigned int type, char increment);
extern int mtrr_del (int reg, unsigned long base, unsigned long size);
extern int mtrr_del_page (int reg, unsigned long base, unsigned long size);
+extern void mtrr_trim_uncached_memory(void);
# else
static __inline__ int mtrr_add (unsigned long base, unsigned long size,
unsigned int type, char increment)
-
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