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SubjectRe: [rfc] no ZERO_PAGE?
On Wed, 4 Apr 2007 08:35:30 -0700 (PDT)
Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> wrote:

> Anyway, I'm not against this, but I can see somebody actually *wanting*
> the ZERO page in some cases. I've used the fact for TLB testing, for
> example, by just doing a big malloc(), and knowing that the kernel will
> re-use the ZERO_PAGE so that I don't get any cache effects (well, at least
> not any *physical* cache effects. Virtually indexed cached will still show
> effects of it, of course, but I haven't cared).
>
> That's an example of an app that actually cares about the page allocation
> (or, in this case, the lack there-of). Not an important one, but maybe
> there are important ones that care?

I dont know if this small prog is of any interest :

But results on an Intel Pentium-M are interesting, in particular 2) & 3)

If a page is first allocated as page_zero then cow to a full rw page, this is more expensive.
(2660 cycles instead of 2300)

Is there an app somewhere that depends on 2) being ultra-fast but then future write accesses *slow* ???

$ ./page_bench >RES; cat RES
1) pagefault tp bring a rw page:
Poke (addr=0x804c000): 2360 cycles
1) pagefault to bring a rw page:
Poke (addr=0x804d000): 2368 cycles
1) pagefault to bring a rw page:
Poke (addr=0x804e000): 2120 cycles
2) pagefault to bring a zero page, readonly
Peek(addr=0x804f000): ->0 891 cycles
3) pagefault to make this page rw
Poke (addr=0x804f000): 2660 cycles
1) pagefault to bring a rw page:
Poke (addr=0x8050000): 2099 cycles
1) pagefault to bring a rw page:
Poke (addr=0x8051000): 2062 cycles
4) memset 4096 bytes to 0x55:
Poke_full (addr=0x804f000, len=4096): 2719 cycles
5) fill the whole table
Poke_full (addr=0x804c000, len=4194304): 6563661 cycles
6) fill again whole table (no more faults, but cpu cache too small)
Poke_full (addr=0x804c000, len=4194304): 5188925 cycles
7.1) faulting a mmap zone, read access
Peek(addr=0xb7f8a000): ->0 40453 cycles
8.1) faulting a mmap zone, write access
Poke (addr=0xb7f89000): 10599 cycles
7.2) faulting a mmap zone, read access
Peek(addr=0xb7f88000): ->0 8167 cycles
8.3) faulting a mmap zone, write access
Poke (addr=0xb7f87000): 5701 cycles

$ cat page_bench.c

# include <errno.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
# include <unistd.h>
# include <fcntl.h>
# include <stdio.h>
# include <sys/time.h>
# include <time.h>
# include <sys/mman.h>
# include <string.h>

#ifdef __x86_64

#define rdtscll(val) do { \
unsigned int __a,__d; \
asm volatile("rdtsc" : "=a" (__a), "=d" (__d)); \
(val) = ((unsigned long)__a) | (((unsigned long)__d)<<32); \
} while(0)
#elif __i386

#define rdtscll(val) \
__asm__ __volatile__("rdtsc" : "=A" (val))

#endif

int var;



int *addr1, *addr2, *addr3, *addr4;

void map_many_vmas(unsigned int nb)
{
size_t sz = getpagesize();
int ui;
for (ui = 0 ; ui < nb ; ui++) {
void *p = mmap(NULL, sz,
(ui == 0) ? PROT_READ : PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE,
(ui & 1) ? MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS : MAP_ANONYMOUS|MAP_SHARED, -1, 0);
if (p == (void *)-1) {
fprintf(stderr, "Only %u mappings could be set\n", ui);
break;
}
if (!addr1) addr1 = (int *)p;
else if (!addr2) addr2 = (int *)p;
else if (!addr3) addr3 = (int *)p;
else if (!addr4) addr4 = (int *)p;
}
}
void show_maps()
{
char buffer[4096];
int fd, lu;
fd = open("/proc/self/maps", 0);
if (fd != -1) {
while ((lu = read(fd, buffer, sizeof(buffer))) > 0)
write(2, buffer, lu);
close(fd);
}
}
void poke_int(void *addr, int val)
{
unsigned long long start, end;
long delta;
rdtscll(start);
*(int *)addr = val;
rdtscll(end);
delta = (end - start);
printf("Poke (addr=%p): %ld cycles\n", addr, delta);
}
void poke_full(void *addr, int val, int len)
{
unsigned long long start, end;
long delta;
rdtscll(start);
memset(addr, val, len);
rdtscll(end);
delta = (end - start);
printf("Poke_full (addr=%p, len=%d): %ld cycles\n", addr, len, delta);
}
int peek_int(void *addr)
{
unsigned long long start, end;
long delta;
int val;
rdtscll(start);
val = *(int *)addr;
rdtscll(end);
delta = (end - start);
printf("Peek(addr=%p): ->%d %ld cycles\n", addr, val, delta);
return val;
}
int big_table[1024*1024] __attribute__((aligned(4096)));

void usage(int code)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Usage : page_bench [-m mappings]\n");
exit(code);
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
unsigned int nb_mappings = 200;
int c;
while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "Vm:")) != EOF) {
if (c == 'm')
nb_mappings = atoi(optarg);
else if (c == 'V')
usage(0);
}
if (nb_mappings < 4)
nb_mappings = 4;
map_many_vmas(nb_mappings);
// show_maps();
printf("1) pagefault tp bring a rw page:\n") ;
poke_int(&big_table[0], 10);
printf("1) pagefault to bring a rw page:\n") ;
poke_int(&big_table[1024], 10);
printf("1) pagefault to bring a rw page:\n") ;
poke_int(&big_table[2048], 10);
printf("2) pagefault to bring a zero page, readonly\n");
peek_int(&big_table[3*1024]);
printf("3) pagefault to make this page rw\n");
poke_int(&big_table[3*1024], 10);
printf("1) pagefault to bring a rw page:\n") ;
poke_int(&big_table[4*1024], 10);
printf("1) pagefault to bring a rw page:\n") ;
poke_int(&big_table[5*1024], 10);

printf("4) memset 4096 bytes to 0x55:\n");
poke_full(&big_table[3*1024], 0x55, 4096);

printf("5) fill the whole table\n");
poke_full(big_table, 1, sizeof(big_table));
printf("6) fill again whole table (no more faults, but cpu cache too small)\n");
poke_full(big_table, 1, sizeof(big_table));

printf("7.1) faulting a mmap zone, read access\n");
peek_int(addr1);

printf("8.1) faulting a mmap zone, write access\n");
poke_int(addr2, 10);
printf("7.2) faulting a mmap zone, read access\n");
peek_int(addr3);
printf("8.3) faulting a mmap zone, write access\n");
poke_int(addr4, 10);

return 0;
}

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