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SubjectRe: [RFC] kernel facilities for cache prefetching
On Wed, May 03, 2006 at 02:45:53PM -0700, Linda Walsh wrote:
> 1. As you mention; reading files "sequentially" through the file
> system is "bad" for several reasons. Areas of interest:
> a) don't go through the file system. Don't waste time doing
> directory lookups and following file-allocation maps; Instead,
> use raw-disk i/o and read sectors in using device & block number.

Sorry, it does not fit in the linux's cache model.

> b) Be "dynamic"; "Trace" (record (dev&blockno/range) blocks
> starting ASAP after system boot and continuing for some "configurable"
> number of seconds past reaching the desired "run-level" (coinciding with
> initial disk quiescence). Save as "configurable" (~6-8?) number of
> traces to allow finding the common initial subset of blocks needed.

It is a alternative way of doing the same job: more precise, with more
complexity and more overhead. However the 'blockno' way is not so
tasteful.

> c) Allow specification of max# of blocks and max number of "sections"
> (discontiguous areas on disk);

Good point, will do it in my work.

> d) "Ideally", would have a way to "defrag" the common set of blocks.
> I.e. -- moving the needed blocks from potentially disparate areas of
> files into 1 or 2 contiguous areas, hopefully near the beginning of
> the disk (or partition(s)).
> That's the area of "boot" pre-caching.

I guess poor man's defrag would be good enough for the seeking storm.

> Next is doing something similar for "application" starts. Start tracing
> when an application is loaded & observe what blocks are requested for
> that app for the first 20 ("configurable") seconds of execution. Store
> traces on a per-application basis. Again, it would be ideal if the
> different files (blocks, really), needed by an application could be
> grouped so that sequentially needed disk-blocks are stored sequentially
> on disk (this _could_ imply the containing files are not contiguous).
>
> Essentially, one wants to do for applications, the same thing one does
> for booting. On small applications, the benefit would likely be negligible,
> but on loading a large app like a windowing system, IDE, or database app,
> multiple configuration files could be read into the cache in one large
> read.
>
> That's "application" pre-caching.

Yes, it is a planned feature, will do it.

> A third area -- that can't be easily done in the kernel, but would
> require a higher skill level on the part of application and library
> developers, is to move towards using "delay-loaded" libraries. In
> Windows, it seems common among system libraries to use this feature.
> An obvious benefit -- if certain features of a program are not used,
> the associated libraries are never loaded. Not loading unneeded parts
> of a program should speed up initial application load time, significantly.

Linux already does lazy loading for linked libs. The only one pitfall
is that /lib/ld-linux.so.2 seems to touch the first 512B data of every
libs before doing mmap():

% strace date
execve("/bin/date", ["date"], [/* 41 vars */]) = 0
uname({sys="Linux", node="lark", ...}) = 0
brk(0) = 0x8053000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0xb7f0e000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0xb7f0d000
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY) = 3
fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=77643, ...}) = 0
mmap2(NULL, 77643, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0xb7efa000
close(3) = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

open("/lib/tls/librt.so.1", O_RDONLY) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\1\1\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0\3\0\1\0\0\0`\35\0\000"..., 512) = 512
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~HERE~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=30612, ...}) = 0
mmap2(NULL, 29264, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0xb7ef2000
mmap2(0xb7ef8000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x6) = 0xb7ef8000
close(3) = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/tls/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\1\1\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0\3\0\1\0\0\0\260O\1"..., 512) = 512
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~HERE~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1270928, ...}) = 0
mmap2(NULL, 1276892, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0xb7dba000
mmap2(0xb7ee8000, 32768, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x12e) = 0xb7ee8000
mmap2(0xb7ef0000, 7132, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0xb7ef0000
close(3) = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/tls/libpthread.so.0", O_RDONLY) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\1\1\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0\3\0\1\0\0\0\340G\0"..., 512) = 512
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~HERE~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=85770, ...}) = 0
mmap2(NULL, 70104, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0xb7da8000
mmap2(0xb7db6000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0xd) = 0xb7db6000
mmap2(0xb7db8000, 4568, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0xb7db8000
close(3) = 0
They can lead to more seeks, and also disturb the readahead logic much.

Wu
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