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Subject[PATCH/RFC] CodingStyle updates
From: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>

Add some kernel coding style comments, mostly pulled from emails
by Andrew Morton, Jesper Juhl, and Randy Dunlap.

- add paragraph on switch/case indentation
- add paragraph on multiple-assignments
- add more on Braces
- add section on Spaces
- add paragraph on function breaks in source files
- add paragraph on EXPORT_SYMBOL placement
- add section on /*-comment style, long-comment style, and data
declarations and comments
- correct some chapter number references that were missed when
chapters were renumbered
Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>
---
Documentation/CodingStyle | 107 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
1 file changed, 102 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
--- linux-2.6.19-git7.orig/Documentation/CodingStyle
+++ linux-2.6.19-git7/Documentation/CodingStyle
@@ -35,12 +35,34 @@ In short, 8-char indents make things eas
benefit of warning you when you're nesting your functions too deep.
Heed that warning.

+The preferred way to ease multiple indentation levels in a switch
+statement is to align the "switch" and its subordinate "case" labels in
+the same column instead of "double-indenting" the "case" labels. E.g.:
+
+ switch (suffix) {
+ case 'G':
+ case 'g':
+ mem <<= 10;
+ case 'M':
+ case 'm':
+ mem << 10;
+ case 'K':
+ case 'k':
+ mem << 10;
+ default:
+ break;
+ }
+
+
Don't put multiple statements on a single line unless you have
something to hide:

if (condition) do_this;
do_something_everytime;

+Don't put multiple assignments on a single line either. Kernel
+coding style is super simple. Avoid tricky expressions.
+
Outside of comments, documentation and except in Kconfig, spaces are never
used for indentation, and the above example is deliberately broken.

@@ -69,7 +91,7 @@ void fun(int a, int b, int c)
next_statement;
}

- Chapter 3: Placing Braces
+ Chapter 3: Placing Braces and Spaces

The other issue that always comes up in C styling is the placement of
braces. Unlike the indent size, there are few technical reasons to
@@ -81,6 +103,20 @@ brace last on the line, and put the clos
we do y
}

+This applies to all non-function statement blocks (if, switch, for,
+while, do). E.g.:
+
+ switch (action) {
+ case KOBJ_ADD:
+ return "add";
+ case KOBJ_REMOVE:
+ return "remove";
+ case KOBJ_CHANGE:
+ return "change";
+ default:
+ return NULL;
+ }
+
However, there is one special case, namely functions: they have the
opening brace at the beginning of the next line, thus:

@@ -121,6 +157,40 @@ supply of new-lines on your screen is no
25-line terminal screens here), you have more empty lines to put
comments on.

+ 3.1: Spaces
+
+Linux kernel style for use of spaces depends (mostly) on
+function-versus-keyword usage. Use a space after (most) keywords.
+The notable exception is "sizeof", which looks like a function
+(and is usually used with parentheses in Linux, although they are
+not required in the language, as in: "sizeof struct file").
+So use a space after these keywords:
+ if, switch, case, for, do, while
+but not with "sizeof". E.g.,
+ s = sizeof(struct file);
+
+Do not add spaces around (inside) parenthesized expressions.
+This example is *bad*:
+
+ s = sizeof( struct file );
+
+When declaring pointer data or a function that returns a pointer type,
+the preferred use of '*' is adjacent to the data name or function name
+and not adjacent to the type name. Examples:
+
+ char *linux_banner;
+ unsigned long long memparse(char *ptr, char **retptr);
+ char *match_strdup(substring_t *s);
+
+Use one space around (on each side of) most binary operators, such as
+any of these:
+ = + - < > * / % | & ^ <= >= == !=
+
+but no space after unary operators:
+ sizeof ++ -- & * + - ~ ! defined
+
+and no space around the '.' unary operator.
+

Chapter 4: Naming

@@ -152,7 +222,7 @@ variable that is used to hold a temporar

If you are afraid to mix up your local variable names, you have another
problem, which is called the function-growth-hormone-imbalance syndrome.
-See next chapter.
+See chapter 6 (Functions).


Chapter 5: Typedefs
@@ -258,6 +328,16 @@ generally easily keep track of about 7 d
and it gets confused. You know you're brilliant, but maybe you'd like
to understand what you did 2 weeks from now.

+In source files, separate functions with one blank line.
+If the function is exported, the EXPORT* macro for it should follow
+immediately after the closing function brace line. E.g.:
+
+int system_is_up(void)
+{
+ return system_state == SYSTEM_RUNNING;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(system_is_up);
+

Chapter 7: Centralized exiting of functions

@@ -306,16 +386,33 @@ time to explain badly written code.
Generally, you want your comments to tell WHAT your code does, not HOW.
Also, try to avoid putting comments inside a function body: if the
function is so complex that you need to separately comment parts of it,
-you should probably go back to chapter 5 for a while. You can make
+you should probably go back to chapter 6 for a while. You can make
small comments to note or warn about something particularly clever (or
ugly), but try to avoid excess. Instead, put the comments at the head
of the function, telling people what it does, and possibly WHY it does
it.

-When commenting the kernel API functions, please use the kerneldoc format.
+When commenting the kernel API functions, please use the kernel-doc format.
See the files Documentation/kernel-doc-nano-HOWTO.txt and scripts/kernel-doc
for details.

+Linux style for comments is the pre-C99 "/* ... */" style.
+Don't use C99-style "// ..." comments.
+
+The preferred style for long (multi-line) comments is:
+
+ /*
+ * This is the preferred style for multi-line
+ * comments in the Linux kernel source code.
+ * Please use it consistently.
+ */
+
+It's also important to comment data, whether they are basic types or
+derived types. To this end, use just one data declaration per line
+(no commas for multiple data declarations). This leaves you room for
+a small comment on each item, explaining its use.
+
+
Chapter 9: You've made a mess of it

That's OK, we all do. You've probably been told by your long-time Unix
@@ -591,4 +688,4 @@ Kernel CodingStyle, by greg@kroah.com at
http://www.kroah.com/linux/talks/ols_2002_kernel_codingstyle_talk/html/

--
-Last updated on 30 April 2006.
+Last updated on 2006-December-06.

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