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SubjectRe: [PATCH] Update Documentation/pci.txt v7
On Mon, Dec 25, 2006 at 01:06:35AM -0700, Grant Grundler wrote:
> On Sat, Dec 23, 2006 at 11:07:26PM -0700, Grant Grundler wrote:
> > "final" patch v7 and commit log entry appended below. :)
>
> v8 adds 2cd round of feedback from Randy Dunlap.

Obviously the subject line is stale...it's really v8 now.
It's just way past my bedtime again.

grant

> Going once...twice... ;)
>
> > Full pci.txt text is easier to review at:
> > http://www.parisc-linux.org/~grundler/Documentation/
>
> Same place.
>
> grant
>
>
> Rewrite Documentation/pci.txt:
> o restructure document to match how API is used when writing init code.
> o update to reflect changes in struct pci_driver function pointers.
> o removed language on "new style vs old style" device discovery.
> "Old style" is now deprecated. Don't use it. Left description in
> to document existing driver behaviors.
> o add section "Legacy I/O Port free driver" by Kenji Kaneshige
> http://lkml.org/lkml/2006/11/22/25
> (renamed to "pci_enable_device_bars() and Legacy I/O Port space")
> o add "MMIO space and write posting" section to help avoid common pitfall
> when converting drivers from IO Port space to MMIO space.
> Orignally posted http://lkml.org/lkml/2006/2/27/24
> o many typo/grammer/spelling corrections from Randy Dunlap
> o two more spelling corrections from Stephan Richter
> o fix CodingStyle as per Randy Dunlap
>
>
> Signed-off-by: Grant Grundler <grundler@parisc-linux.org>
>
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/pci.txt b/Documentation/pci.txt
> index 2b395e4..0d33d80 100644
> --- a/Documentation/pci.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/pci.txt
> @@ -1,142 +1,231 @@
> - How To Write Linux PCI Drivers
>
> - by Martin Mares <mj@ucw.cz> on 07-Feb-2000
> + How To Write Linux PCI Drivers
> +
> + by Martin Mares <mj@ucw.cz> on 07-Feb-2000
> + updated by Grant Grundler <grundler@parisc-linux.org> on 23-Dec-2006
>
> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> -The world of PCI is vast and it's full of (mostly unpleasant) surprises.
> -Different PCI devices have different requirements and different bugs --
> -because of this, the PCI support layer in Linux kernel is not as trivial
> -as one would wish. This short pamphlet tries to help all potential driver
> -authors find their way through the deep forests of PCI handling.
> +The world of PCI is vast and full of (mostly unpleasant) surprises.
> +Since each CPU architecture implements different chip-sets and PCI devices
> +have different requirements (erm, "features"), the result is the PCI support
> +in the Linux kernel is not as trivial as one would wish. This short paper
> +tries to introduce all potential driver authors to Linux APIs for
> +PCI device drivers.
> +
> +A more complete resource is the third edition of "Linux Device Drivers"
> +by Jonathan Corbet, Alessandro Rubini, and Greg Kroah-Hartman.
> +LDD3 is available for free (under Creative Commons License) from:
> +
> + http://lwn.net/Kernel/LDD3/
> +
> +However, keep in mind that all documents are subject to "bit rot".
> +Refer to the source code if things are not working as described here.
> +
> +Please send questions/comments/patches about Linux PCI API to the
> +"Linux PCI" <linux-pci@atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz> mailing list.
> +
>
>
> 0. Structure of PCI drivers
> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> -There exist two kinds of PCI drivers: new-style ones (which leave most of
> -probing for devices to the PCI layer and support online insertion and removal
> -of devices [thus supporting PCI, hot-pluggable PCI and CardBus in a single
> -driver]) and old-style ones which just do all the probing themselves. Unless
> -you have a very good reason to do so, please don't use the old way of probing
> -in any new code. After the driver finds the devices it wishes to operate
> -on (either the old or the new way), it needs to perform the following steps:
> +PCI drivers "discover" PCI devices in a system via pci_register_driver().
> +Actually, it's the other way around. When the PCI generic code discovers
> +a new device, the driver with a matching "description" will be notified.
> +Details on this below.
> +
> +pci_register_driver() leaves most of the probing for devices to
> +the PCI layer and supports online insertion/removal of devices [thus
> +supporting hot-pluggable PCI, CardBus, and Express-Card in a single driver].
> +pci_register_driver() call requires passing in a table of function
> +pointers and thus dictates the high level structure of a driver.
> +
> +Once the driver knows about a PCI device and takes ownership, the
> +driver generally needs to perform the following initialization:
>
> Enable the device
> - Access device configuration space
> - Discover resources (addresses and IRQ numbers) provided by the device
> - Allocate these resources
> - Communicate with the device
> + Request MMIO/IOP resources
> + Set the DMA mask size (for both coherent and streaming DMA)
> + Allocate and initialize shared control data (pci_allocate_coherent())
> + Access device configuration space (if needed)
> + Register IRQ handler (request_irq())
> + Initialize non-PCI (i.e. LAN/SCSI/etc parts of the chip)
> + Enable DMA/processing engines
> +
> +When done using the device, and perhaps the module needs to be unloaded,
> +the driver needs to take the follow steps:
> + Disable the device from generating IRQs
> + Release the IRQ (free_irq())
> + Stop all DMA activity
> + Release DMA buffers (both streaming and coherent)
> + Unregister from other subsystems (e.g. scsi or netdev)
> + Release MMIO/IOP resources
> Disable the device
>
> -Most of these topics are covered by the following sections, for the rest
> -look at <linux/pci.h>, it's hopefully well commented.
> +Most of these topics are covered in the following sections.
> +For the rest look at LDD3 or <linux/pci.h> .
>
> If the PCI subsystem is not configured (CONFIG_PCI is not set), most of
> -the functions described below are defined as inline functions either completely
> -empty or just returning an appropriate error codes to avoid lots of ifdefs
> -in the drivers.
> +the PCI functions described below are defined as inline functions either
> +completely empty or just returning an appropriate error codes to avoid
> +lots of ifdefs in the drivers.
> +
>
>
> -1. New-style drivers
> -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> -The new-style drivers just call pci_register_driver during their initialization
> -with a pointer to a structure describing the driver (struct pci_driver) which
> -contains:
> +1. pci_register_driver() call
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
>
> - name Name of the driver
> +PCI device drivers call pci_register_driver() during their
> +initialization with a pointer to a structure describing the driver
> +(struct pci_driver):
> +
> + field name Description
> + ---------- ------------------------------------------------------
> id_table Pointer to table of device ID's the driver is
> interested in. Most drivers should export this
> table using MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(pci,...).
> - probe Pointer to a probing function which gets called (during
> - execution of pci_register_driver for already existing
> - devices or later if a new device gets inserted) for all
> - PCI devices which match the ID table and are not handled
> - by the other drivers yet. This function gets passed a
> - pointer to the pci_dev structure representing the device
> - and also which entry in the ID table did the device
> - match. It returns zero when the driver has accepted the
> - device or an error code (negative number) otherwise.
> - This function always gets called from process context,
> - so it can sleep.
> - remove Pointer to a function which gets called whenever a
> - device being handled by this driver is removed (either
> - during deregistration of the driver or when it's
> - manually pulled out of a hot-pluggable slot). This
> - function always gets called from process context, so it
> - can sleep.
> - save_state Save a device's state before it's suspend.
> +
> + probe This probing function gets called (during execution
> + of pci_register_driver() for already existing
> + devices or later if a new device gets inserted) for
> + all PCI devices which match the ID table and are not
> + "owned" by the other drivers yet. This function gets
> + passed a "struct pci_dev *" for each device whose
> + entry in the ID table matches the device. The probe
> + function returns zero when the driver chooses to
> + take "ownership" of the device or an error code
> + (negative number) otherwise.
> + The probe function always gets called from process
> + context, so it can sleep.
> +
> + remove The remove() function gets called whenever a device
> + being handled by this driver is removed (either during
> + deregistration of the driver or when it's manually
> + pulled out of a hot-pluggable slot).
> + The remove function always gets called from process
> + context, so it can sleep.
> +
> suspend Put device into low power state.
> + suspend_late Put device into low power state.
> +
> + resume_early Wake device from low power state.
> resume Wake device from low power state.
> +
> + (Please see Documentation/power/pci.txt for descriptions
> + of PCI Power Management and the related functions.)
> +
> enable_wake Enable device to generate wake events from a low power
> state.
>
> - (Please see Documentation/power/pci.txt for descriptions
> - of PCI Power Management and the related functions)
> + shutdown Hook into reboot_notifier_list (kernel/sys.c).
> + Intended to stop any idling DMA operations.
> + Useful for enabling wake-on-lan (NIC) or changing
> + the power state of a device before reboot.
> + e.g. drivers/net/e100.c.
> +
> + err_handler See Documentation/pci-error-recovery.txt
> +
> + multithread_probe Enable multi-threaded probe/scan. Driver must
> + provide its own locking/syncronization for init
> + operations if this is enabled.
> +
>
> -The ID table is an array of struct pci_device_id ending with a all-zero entry.
> -Each entry consists of:
> +The ID table is an array of struct pci_device_id entries ending with an
> +all-zero entry. Each entry consists of:
> +
> + vendor,device Vendor and device ID to match (or PCI_ANY_ID)
>
> - vendor, device Vendor and device ID to match (or PCI_ANY_ID)
> subvendor, Subsystem vendor and device ID to match (or PCI_ANY_ID)
> - subdevice
> - class, Device class to match. The class_mask tells which bits
> - class_mask of the class are honored during the comparison.
> + subdevice,
> +
> + class Device class, subclass, and "interface" to match.
> + See Appendix D of the PCI Local Bus Spec or
> + include/linux/pci_ids.h for a full list of classes.
> + Most drivers do not need to specify class/class_mask
> + as vendor/device is normally sufficient.
> +
> + class_mask limit which sub-fields of the class field are compared.
> + See drivers/scsi/sym53c8xx_2/ for example of usage.
> +
> driver_data Data private to the driver.
> + Most drivers don't need to use driver_data field.
> + Best practice is to use driver_data as an index
> + into a static list of equivalent device types,
> + instead of using it as a pointer.
>
> -Most drivers don't need to use the driver_data field. Best practice
> -for use of driver_data is to use it as an index into a static list of
> -equivalent device types, not to use it as a pointer.
>
> -Have a table entry {PCI_ANY_ID, PCI_ANY_ID, PCI_ANY_ID, PCI_ANY_ID}
> -to have probe() called for every PCI device known to the system.
> +Most drivers only need PCI_DEVICE() or PCI_DEVICE_CLASS() to set up
> +a pci_device_id table.
>
> -New PCI IDs may be added to a device driver at runtime by writing
> -to the file /sys/bus/pci/drivers/{driver}/new_id. When added, the
> -driver will probe for all devices it can support.
> +New PCI IDs may be added to a device driver pci_ids table at runtime
> +as shown below:
>
> echo "vendor device subvendor subdevice class class_mask driver_data" > \
> - /sys/bus/pci/drivers/{driver}/new_id
> -where all fields are passed in as hexadecimal values (no leading 0x).
> -Users need pass only as many fields as necessary; vendor, device,
> -subvendor, and subdevice fields default to PCI_ANY_ID (FFFFFFFF),
> -class and classmask fields default to 0, and driver_data defaults to
> -0UL. Device drivers must initialize use_driver_data in the dynids struct
> -in their pci_driver struct prior to calling pci_register_driver in order
> -for the driver_data field to get passed to the driver. Otherwise, only a
> -0 is passed in that field.
> +/sys/bus/pci/drivers/{driver}/new_id
> +
> +All fields are passed in as hexadecimal values (no leading 0x).
> +Users need pass only as many fields as necessary:
> + o vendor, device, subvendor, and subdevice fields default
> + to PCI_ANY_ID (FFFFFFFF),
> + o class and classmask fields default to 0
> + o driver_data defaults to 0UL.
> +
> +Once added, the driver probe routine will be invoked for any unclaimed
> +PCI devices listed in its (newly updated) pci_ids list.
>
> When the driver exits, it just calls pci_unregister_driver() and the PCI layer
> automatically calls the remove hook for all devices handled by the driver.
>
> +
> +1.1 "Attributes" for driver functions/data
> +
> Please mark the initialization and cleanup functions where appropriate
> (the corresponding macros are defined in <linux/init.h>):
>
> __init Initialization code. Thrown away after the driver
> initializes.
> __exit Exit code. Ignored for non-modular drivers.
> - __devinit Device initialization code. Identical to __init if
> - the kernel is not compiled with CONFIG_HOTPLUG, normal
> - function otherwise.
> +
> +
> + __devinit Device initialization code.
> + Identical to __init if the kernel is not compiled
> + with CONFIG_HOTPLUG, normal function otherwise.
> __devexit The same for __exit.
>
> -Tips:
> - The module_init()/module_exit() functions (and all initialization
> - functions called only from these) should be marked __init/exit.
> - The struct pci_driver shouldn't be marked with any of these tags.
> - The ID table array should be marked __devinitdata.
> - The probe() and remove() functions (and all initialization
> - functions called only from these) should be marked __devinit/exit.
> - If you are sure the driver is not a hotplug driver then use only
> - __init/exit __initdata/exitdata.
> +Tips on when/where to use the above attributes:
> + o The module_init()/module_exit() functions (and all
> + initialization functions called _only_ from these)
> + should be marked __init/__exit.
>
> - Pointers to functions marked as __devexit must be created using
> - __devexit_p(function_name). That will generate the function
> - name or NULL if the __devexit function will be discarded.
> + o Do not mark the struct pci_driver.
>
> + o The ID table array should be marked __devinitdata.
>
> -2. How to find PCI devices manually (the old style)
> -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> -PCI drivers not using the pci_register_driver() interface search
> -for PCI devices manually using the following constructs:
> + o The probe() and remove() functions should be marked __devinit
> + and __devexit respectively. All initialization functions
> + exclusively called by the probe() routine, can be marked __devinit.
> + Ditto for remove() and __devexit.
> +
> + o If mydriver_probe() is marked with __devinit(), then all address
> + references to mydriver_probe must use __devexit_p(mydriver_probe)
> + (in the struct pci_driver declaration for example).
> + __devexit_p() will generate the function name _or_ NULL if the
> + function will be discarded. For an example, see drivers/net/tg3.c.
> +
> + o Do NOT mark a function if you are not sure which mark to use.
> + Better to not mark the function than mark the function wrong.
> +
> +
> +
> +2. How to find PCI devices manually
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +PCI drivers should have a really good reason for not using the
> +pci_register_driver() interface to search for PCI devices.
> +The main reason PCI devices are controlled by multiple drivers
> +is because one PCI device implements several different HW services.
> +E.g. combined serial/parallel port/floppy controller.
> +
> +A manual search may be performed using the following constructs:
>
> Searching by vendor and device ID:
>
> @@ -150,87 +239,311 @@ Searching by class ID (iterate in a similar way):
>
> Searching by both vendor/device and subsystem vendor/device ID:
>
> - pci_get_subsys(VENDOR_ID, DEVICE_ID, SUBSYS_VENDOR_ID, SUBSYS_DEVICE_ID, dev).
> + pci_get_subsys(VENDOR_ID,DEVICE_ID, SUBSYS_VENDOR_ID, SUBSYS_DEVICE_ID, dev).
>
> - You can use the constant PCI_ANY_ID as a wildcard replacement for
> +You can use the constant PCI_ANY_ID as a wildcard replacement for
> VENDOR_ID or DEVICE_ID. This allows searching for any device from a
> specific vendor, for example.
>
> - These functions are hotplug-safe. They increment the reference count on
> +These functions are hotplug-safe. They increment the reference count on
> the pci_dev that they return. You must eventually (possibly at module unload)
> decrement the reference count on these devices by calling pci_dev_put().
>
>
> -3. Enabling and disabling devices
> -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> - Before you do anything with the device you've found, you need to enable
> -it by calling pci_enable_device() which enables I/O and memory regions of
> -the device, allocates an IRQ if necessary, assigns missing resources if
> -needed and wakes up the device if it was in suspended state. Please note
> -that this function can fail.
>
> - If you want to use the device in bus mastering mode, call pci_set_master()
> -which enables the bus master bit in PCI_COMMAND register and also fixes
> -the latency timer value if it's set to something bogus by the BIOS.
> +3. Device Initialization Steps
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +As noted in the introduction, most PCI drivers need the following steps
> +for device initialization:
>
> - If you want to use the PCI Memory-Write-Invalidate transaction,
> + Enable the device
> + Request MMIO/IOP resources
> + Set the DMA mask size (for both coherent and streaming DMA)
> + Allocate and initialize shared control data (pci_allocate_coherent())
> + Access device configuration space (if needed)
> + Register IRQ handler (request_irq())
> + Initialize non-PCI (i.e. LAN/SCSI/etc parts of the chip)
> + Enable DMA/processing engines.
> +
> +The driver can access PCI config space registers at any time.
> +(Well, almost. When running BIST, config space can go away...but
> +that will just result in a PCI Bus Master Abort and config reads
> +will return garbage).
> +
> +
> +3.1 Enable the PCI device
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Before touching any device registers, the driver needs to enable
> +the PCI device by calling pci_enable_device(). This will:
> + o wake up the device if it was in suspended state,
> + o allocate I/O and memory regions of the device (if BIOS did not),
> + o allocate an IRQ (if BIOS did not).
> +
> +NOTE: pci_enable_device() can fail! Check the return value.
> +NOTE2: Also see pci_enable_device_bars() below. Drivers can
> + attempt to enable only a subset of BARs they need.
> +
> +[ OS BUG: we don't check resource allocations before enabling those
> + resources. The sequence would make more sense if we called
> + pci_request_resources() before calling pci_enable_device().
> + Currently, the device drivers can't detect the bug when when two
> + devices have been allocated the same range. This is not a common
> + problem and unlikely to get fixed soon.
> +
> + This has been discussed before but not changed as of 2.6.19:
> + http://lkml.org/lkml/2006/3/2/194
> +]
> +
> +pci_set_master() will enable DMA by setting the bus master bit
> +in the PCI_COMMAND register. It also fixes the latency timer value if
> +it's set to something bogus by the BIOS.
> +
> +If the PCI device can use the PCI Memory-Write-Invalidate transaction,
> call pci_set_mwi(). This enables the PCI_COMMAND bit for Mem-Wr-Inval
> and also ensures that the cache line size register is set correctly.
> -Make sure to check the return value of pci_set_mwi(), not all architectures
> -may support Memory-Write-Invalidate.
> +Check the return value of pci_set_mwi() as not all architectures
> +or chip-sets may support Memory-Write-Invalidate.
> +
> +
> +3.2 Request MMIO/IOP resources
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Memory (MMIO), and I/O port addresses should NOT be read directly
> +from the PCI device config space. Use the values in the pci_dev structure
> +as the PCI "bus address" might have been remapped to a "host physical"
> +address by the arch/chip-set specific kernel support.
>
> - If your driver decides to stop using the device (e.g., there was an
> -error while setting it up or the driver module is being unloaded), it
> -should call pci_disable_device() to deallocate any IRQ resources, disable
> -PCI bus-mastering, etc. You should not do anything with the device after
> +See Documentation/IO-mapping.txt for how to access device registers
> +or device memory.
> +
> +The device driver needs to call pci_request_region() to verify
> +no other device is already using the same address resource.
> +Conversely, drivers should call pci_release_region() AFTER
> calling pci_disable_device().
> +The idea is to prevent two devices colliding on the same address range.
> +
> +[ See OS BUG comment above. Currently (2.6.19), The driver can only
> + determine MMIO and IO Port resource availability _after_ calling
> + pci_enable_device(). ]
> +
> +Generic flavors of pci_request_region() are request_mem_region()
> +(for MMIO ranges) and request_region() (for IO Port ranges).
> +Use these for address resources that are not described by "normal" PCI
> +BARs.
> +
> +Also see pci_request_selected_regions() below.
> +
> +
> +3.3 Set the DMA mask size
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +[ If anything below doesn't make sense, please refer to
> + Documentation/DMA-API.txt. This section is just a reminder that
> + drivers need to indicate DMA capabilities of the device and is not
> + an authoritative source for DMA interfaces. ]
> +
> +While all drivers should explicitly indicate the DMA capability
> +(e.g. 32 or 64 bit) of the PCI bus master, devices with more than
> +32-bit bus master capability for streaming data need the driver
> +to "register" this capability by calling pci_set_dma_mask() with
> +appropriate parameters. In general this allows more efficient DMA
> +on systems where System RAM exists above 4G _physical_ address.
> +
> +Drivers for all PCI-X and PCIe compliant devices must call
> +pci_set_dma_mask() as they are 64-bit DMA devices.
> +
> +Similarly, drivers must also "register" this capability if the device
> +can directly address "consistent memory" in System RAM above 4G physical
> +address by calling pci_set_consistent_dma_mask().
> +Again, this includes drivers for all PCI-X and PCIe compliant devices.
> +Many 64-bit "PCI" devices (before PCI-X) and some PCI-X devices are
> +64-bit DMA capable for payload ("streaming") data but not control
> +("consistent") data.
> +
> +
> +3.4 Setup shared control data
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Once the DMA masks are set, the driver can allocate "consistent" (a.k.a. shared)
> +memory. See Documentation/DMA-API.txt for a full description of
> +the DMA APIs. This section is just a reminder that it needs to be done
> +before enabling DMA on the device.
> +
> +
> +3.5 Initialize device registers
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Some drivers will need specific "capability" fields programmed
> +or other "vendor specific" register initialized or reset.
> +E.g. clearing pending interrupts.
> +
> +
> +3.6 Register IRQ handler
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +While calling request_irq() is the the last step described here,
> +this is often just another intermediate step to initialize a device.
> +This step can often be deferred until the device is opened for use.
> +
> +All interrupt handlers for IRQ lines should be registered with IRQF_SHARED
> +and use the devid to map IRQs to devices (remember that all PCI IRQ lines
> +can be shared).
> +
> +request_irq() will associate an interrupt handler and device handle
> +with an interrupt number. Historically interrupt numbers represent
> +IRQ lines which run from the PCI device to the Interrupt controller.
> +With MSI and MSI-X (more below) the interrupt number is a CPU "vector".
> +
> +request_irq() also enables the interrupt. Make sure the device is
> +quiesced and does not have any interrupts pending before registering
> +the interrupt handler.
> +
> +MSI and MSI-X are PCI capabilities. Both are "Message Signaled Interrupts"
> +which deliver interrupts to the CPU via a DMA write to a Local APIC.
> +The fundamental difference between MSI and MSI-X is how multiple
> +"vectors" get allocated. MSI requires contiguous blocks of vectors
> +while MSI-X can allocate several individual ones.
> +
> +MSI capability can be enabled by calling pci_enable_msi() or
> +pci_enable_msix() before calling request_irq(). This causes
> +the PCI support to program CPU vector data into the PCI device
> +capability registers.
> +
> +If your PCI device supports both, try to enable MSI-X first.
> +Only one can be enabled at a time. Many architectures, chip-sets,
> +or BIOSes do NOT support MSI or MSI-X and the call to pci_enable_msi/msix
> +will fail. This is important to note since many drivers have
> +two (or more) interrupt handlers: one for MSI/MSI-X and another for IRQs.
> +They choose which handler to register with request_irq() based on the
> +return value from pci_enable_msi/msix().
> +
> +There are (at least) two really good reasons for using MSI:
> +1) MSI is an exclusive interrupt vector by definition.
> + This means the interrupt handler doesn't have to verify
> + its device caused the interrupt.
> +
> +2) MSI avoids DMA/IRQ race conditions. DMA to host memory is guaranteed
> + to be visible to the host CPU(s) when the MSI is delivered. This
> + is important for both data coherency and avoiding stale control data.
> + This guarantee allows the driver to omit MMIO reads to flush
> + the DMA stream.
> +
> +See drivers/infiniband/hw/mthca/ or drivers/net/tg3.c for examples
> +of MSI/MSI-X usage.
> +
> +
> +
> +4. PCI device shutdown
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +When a PCI device driver is being unloaded, most of the following
> +steps need to be performed:
> +
> + Disable the device from generating IRQs
> + Release the IRQ (free_irq())
> + Stop all DMA activity
> + Release DMA buffers (both streaming and consistent)
> + Unregister from other subsystems (e.g. scsi or netdev)
> + Disable device from responding to MMIO/IO Port addresses
> + Release MMIO/IO Port resource(s)
> +
> +
> +4.1 Stop IRQs on the device
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +How to do this is chip/device specific. If it's not done, it opens
> +the possibility of a "screaming interrupt" if (and only if)
> +the IRQ is shared with another device.
> +
> +When the shared IRQ handler is "unhooked", the remaining devices
> +using the same IRQ line will still need the IRQ enabled. Thus if the
> +"unhooked" device asserts IRQ line, the system will respond assuming
> +it was one of the remaining devices asserted the IRQ line. Since none
> +of the other devices will handle the IRQ, the system will "hang" until
> +it decides the IRQ isn't going to get handled and masks the IRQ (100,000
> +iterations later). Once the shared IRQ is masked, the remaining devices
> +will stop functioning properly. Not a nice situation.
> +
> +This is another reason to use MSI or MSI-X if it's available.
> +MSI and MSI-X are defined to be exclusive interrupts and thus
> +are not susceptible to the "screaming interrupt" problem.
> +
> +
> +4.2 Release the IRQ
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Once the device is quiesced (no more IRQs), one can call free_irq().
> +This function will return control once any pending IRQs are handled,
> +"unhook" the drivers IRQ handler from that IRQ, and finally release
> +the IRQ if no one else is using it.
> +
> +
> +4.3 Stop all DMA activity
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +It's extremely important to stop all DMA operations BEFORE attempting
> +to deallocate DMA control data. Failure to do so can result in memory
> +corruption, hangs, and on some chip-sets a hard crash.
>
> -4. How to access PCI config space
> +Stopping DMA after stopping the IRQs can avoid races where the
> +IRQ handler might restart DMA engines.
> +
> +While this step sounds obvious and trivial, several "mature" drivers
> +didn't get this step right in the past.
> +
> +
> +4.4 Release DMA buffers
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Once DMA is stopped, clean up streaming DMA first.
> +I.e. unmap data buffers and return buffers to "upstream"
> +owners if there is one.
> +
> +Then clean up "consistent" buffers which contain the control data.
> +
> +See Documentation/DMA-API.txt for details on unmapping interfaces.
> +
> +
> +4.5 Unregister from other subsystems
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Most low level PCI device drivers support some other subsystem
> +like USB, ALSA, SCSI, NetDev, Infiniband, etc. Make sure your
> +driver isn't losing resources from that other subsystem.
> +If this happens, typically the symptom is an Oops (panic) when
> +the subsystem attempts to call into a driver that has been unloaded.
> +
> +
> +4.6 Disable Device from responding to MMIO/IO Port addresses
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +io_unmap() MMIO or IO Port resources and then call pci_disable_device().
> +This is the symmetric opposite of pci_enable_device().
> +Do not access device registers after calling pci_disable_device().
> +
> +
> +4.7 Release MMIO/IO Port Resource(s)
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Call pci_release_region() to mark the MMIO or IO Port range as available.
> +Failure to do so usually results in the inability to reload the driver.
> +
> +
> +
> +5. How to access PCI config space
> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> - You can use pci_(read|write)_config_(byte|word|dword) to access the config
> +
> +You can use pci_(read|write)_config_(byte|word|dword) to access the config
> space of a device represented by struct pci_dev *. All these functions return 0
> when successful or an error code (PCIBIOS_...) which can be translated to a text
> string by pcibios_strerror. Most drivers expect that accesses to valid PCI
> devices don't fail.
>
> - If you don't have a struct pci_dev available, you can call
> +If you don't have a struct pci_dev available, you can call
> pci_bus_(read|write)_config_(byte|word|dword) to access a given device
> and function on that bus.
>
> - If you access fields in the standard portion of the config header, please
> +If you access fields in the standard portion of the config header, please
> use symbolic names of locations and bits declared in <linux/pci.h>.
>
> - If you need to access Extended PCI Capability registers, just call
> +If you need to access Extended PCI Capability registers, just call
> pci_find_capability() for the particular capability and it will find the
> corresponding register block for you.
>
>
> -5. Addresses and interrupts
> -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> - Memory and port addresses and interrupt numbers should NOT be read from the
> -config space. You should use the values in the pci_dev structure as they might
> -have been remapped by the kernel.
> -
> - See Documentation/IO-mapping.txt for how to access device memory.
> -
> - The device driver needs to call pci_request_region() to make sure
> -no other device is already using the same resource. The driver is expected
> -to determine MMIO and IO Port resource availability _before_ calling
> -pci_enable_device(). Conversely, drivers should call pci_release_region()
> -_after_ calling pci_disable_device(). The idea is to prevent two devices
> -colliding on the same address range.
> -
> -Generic flavors of pci_request_region() are request_mem_region()
> -(for MMIO ranges) and request_region() (for IO Port ranges).
> -Use these for address resources that are not described by "normal" PCI
> -interfaces (e.g. BAR).
> -
> - All interrupt handlers should be registered with IRQF_SHARED and use the devid
> -to map IRQs to devices (remember that all PCI interrupts are shared).
> -
>
> 6. Other interesting functions
> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> pci_find_slot() Find pci_dev corresponding to given bus and
> slot numbers.
> pci_set_power_state() Set PCI Power Management state (0=D0 ... 3=D3)
> @@ -247,11 +560,12 @@ pci_set_mwi() Enable Memory-Write-Invalidate transactions.
> pci_clear_mwi() Disable Memory-Write-Invalidate transactions.
>
>
> +
> 7. Miscellaneous hints
> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> -When displaying PCI slot names to the user (for example when a driver wants
> -to tell the user what card has it found), please use pci_name(pci_dev)
> -for this purpose.
> +
> +When displaying PCI device names to the user (for example when a driver wants
> +to tell the user what card has it found), please use pci_name(pci_dev).
>
> Always refer to the PCI devices by a pointer to the pci_dev structure.
> All PCI layer functions use this identification and it's the only
> @@ -259,31 +573,113 @@ reasonable one. Don't use bus/slot/function numbers except for very
> special purposes -- on systems with multiple primary buses their semantics
> can be pretty complex.
>
> -If you're going to use PCI bus mastering DMA, take a look at
> -Documentation/DMA-mapping.txt.
> -
> Don't try to turn on Fast Back to Back writes in your driver. All devices
> on the bus need to be capable of doing it, so this is something which needs
> to be handled by platform and generic code, not individual drivers.
>
>
> +
> 8. Vendor and device identifications
> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> -For the future, let's avoid adding device ids to include/linux/pci_ids.h.
>
> -PCI_VENDOR_ID_xxx for vendors, and a hex constant for device ids.
> +One is not not required to add new device ids to include/linux/pci_ids.h.
> +Please add PCI_VENDOR_ID_xxx for vendors and a hex constant for device ids.
> +
> +PCI_VENDOR_ID_xxx constants are re-used. The device ids are arbitrary
> +hex numbers (vendor controlled) and normally used only in a single
> +location, the pci_device_id table.
> +
> +Please DO submit new vendor/device ids to pciids.sourceforge.net project.
> +
>
> -Rationale: PCI_VENDOR_ID_xxx constants are re-used, but device ids are not.
> - Further, device ids are arbitrary hex numbers, normally used only in a
> - single location, the pci_device_id table.
>
> 9. Obsolete functions
> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> There are several functions which you might come across when trying to
> port an old driver to the new PCI interface. They are no longer present
> in the kernel as they aren't compatible with hotplug or PCI domains or
> having sane locking.
>
> -pci_find_device() Superseded by pci_get_device()
> -pci_find_subsys() Superseded by pci_get_subsys()
> -pci_find_slot() Superseded by pci_get_slot()
> +pci_find_device() Superseded by pci_get_device()
> +pci_find_subsys() Superseded by pci_get_subsys()
> +pci_find_slot() Superseded by pci_get_slot()
> +
> +
> +The alternative is the traditional PCI device driver that walks PCI
> +device lists. This is still possible but discouraged.
> +
> +
> +
> +10. pci_enable_device_bars() and Legacy I/O Port space
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +Large servers may not be able to provide I/O port resources to all PCI
> +devices. I/O Port space is only 64KB on Intel Architecture[1] and is
> +likely also fragmented since the I/O base register of PCI-to-PCI
> +bridge will usually be aligned to a 4KB boundary[2]. On such systems,
> +pci_enable_device() and pci_request_region() will fail when
> +attempting to enable I/O Port regions that don't have I/O Port
> +resources assigned.
> +
> +Fortunately, many PCI devices which request I/O Port resources also
> +provide access to the same registers via MMIO BARs. These devices can
> +be handled without using I/O port space and the drivers typically
> +offer a CONFIG_ option to only use MMIO regions
> +(e.g. CONFIG_TULIP_MMIO). PCI devices typically provide I/O port
> +interface for legacy OSes and will work when I/O port resources are not
> +assigned. The "PCI Local Bus Specification Revision 3.0" discusses
> +this on p.44, "IMPLEMENTATION NOTE".
> +
> +If your PCI device driver doesn't need I/O port resources assigned to
> +I/O Port BARs, you should use pci_enable_device_bars() instead of
> +pci_enable_device() in order not to enable I/O port regions for the
> +corresponding devices. In addition, you should use
> +pci_request_selected_regions() and pci_release_selected_regions()
> +instead of pci_request_regions()/pci_release_regions() in order not to
> +request/release I/O port regions for the corresponding devices.
> +
> +[1] Some systems support 64KB I/O port space per PCI segment.
> +[2] Some PCI-to-PCI bridges support optional 1KB aligned I/O base.
> +
> +
> +
> +11. MMIO Space and "Write Posting"
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +Converting a driver from using I/O Port space to using MMIO space
> +often requires some additional changes. Specifically, "write posting"
> +needs to be handled. Many drivers (e.g. tg3, acenic, sym53c8xx_2)
> +already do this. I/O Port space guarantees write transactions reach the PCI
> +device before the CPU can continue. Writes to MMIO space allow the CPU
> +to continue before the transaction reaches the PCI device. HW weenies
> +call this "Write Posting" because the write completion is "posted" to
> +the CPU before the transaction has reached its destination.
> +
> +Thus, timing sensitive code should add readl() where the CPU is
> +expected to wait before doing other work. The classic "bit banging"
> +sequence works fine for I/O Port space:
> +
> + for (i = 8; --i; val >>= 1) {
> + outb(val & 1, ioport_reg); /* write bit */
> + udelay(10);
> + }
> +
> +The same sequence for MMIO space should be:
> +
> + for (i = 8; --i; val >>= 1) {
> + writeb(val & 1, mmio_reg); /* write bit */
> + readb(safe_mmio_reg); /* flush posted write */
> + udelay(10);
> + }
> +
> +It is important that "safe_mmio_reg" not have any side effects that
> +interferes with the correct operation of the device.
> +
> +Another case to watch out for is when resetting a PCI device. Use PCI
> +Configuration space reads to flush the writel(). This will gracefully
> +handle the PCI master abort on all platforms if the PCI device is
> +expected to not respond to a readl(). Most x86 platforms will allow
> +MMIO reads to master abort (a.k.a. "Soft Fail") and return garbage
> +(e.g. ~0). But many RISC platforms will crash (a.k.a."Hard Fail").
> +
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