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SubjectRe: [PATCH] x86_64 Avoid some atomic operations during address space destruction
Andi Kleen wrote:

>On Sunday 07 August 2005 14:16, Zachary Amsden wrote:
>
>
>FYI I have queued it, but cannot apply it because the necessary generic
>code support is still not in mainline.
>
>

Here's the patch for generic / i386 support; it's already in the -mm tree.

>Do you have any other optimizations pending for x86-64?
>
>There is still the iopl optimization that you did that is on my TODO list to
>add. Anything else.
>
>

I started porting the IOPL work, but got confused in my tree and end up
patching asm-i386 with x86-64 code. The joy of unenforced source control!

I have some other MMU optimizations pending that will hopefully be a win
for all architectures; still measuring which alternative is best there.

Zach
Add a new accessor for PTEs, which passes the full hint from the mmu_gather
struct; this allows architectures with hardware pagetables to optimize away
atomic PTE operations when destroying an address space. Removing the locked
operation should allow better pipelining of memory access in this loop. I
measured an average savings of 30-35 cycles per zap_pte_range on the first 500
destructions on Pentium-M, but I believe the optimization would win more on
older processors which still assert the bus lock on xchg for an exclusive
cacheline.

Update: I made some new measurements, and this saves exactly 26 cycles over
ptep_get_and_clear on Pentium M. On P4, with a PAE kernel, this saves 180
cycles per ptep_get_and_clear, for a whopping 92160 cycles savings for a full
address space destruction.

pte_clear_full is not yet used, but is provided for future optimizations (in
particular, when running inside of a hypervisor that queues page table updates,
the full hint allows us to avoid queueing unnecessary page table update for an
address space in the process of being destroyed.

This is not a huge win, but it does help a bit, and sets the stage for further
hypervisor optimization of the mm layer on all architectures.

Signed-off-by: Zachary Amsden <zach@vmware.com>
Index: linux-2.6.13/include/asm-generic/pgtable.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.13.orig/include/asm-generic/pgtable.h 2005-07-29 11:03:10.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6.13/include/asm-generic/pgtable.h 2005-07-29 15:26:58.000000000 -0700
@@ -101,6 +101,22 @@
})
#endif

+#ifndef __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_GET_AND_CLEAR_FULL
+#define ptep_get_and_clear_full(__mm, __address, __ptep, __full) \
+({ \
+ pte_t __pte; \
+ __pte = ptep_get_and_clear((__mm), (__address), (__ptep)); \
+ __pte; \
+})
+#endif
+
+#ifndef __HAVE_ARCH_PTE_CLEAR_FULL
+#define pte_clear_full(__mm, __address, __ptep, __full) \
+do { \
+ pte_clear((__mm), (__address), (__ptep)); \
+} while (0)
+#endif
+
#ifndef __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_CLEAR_FLUSH
#define ptep_clear_flush(__vma, __address, __ptep) \
({ \
Index: linux-2.6.13/include/asm-i386/pgtable.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.13.orig/include/asm-i386/pgtable.h 2005-07-29 11:03:10.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6.13/include/asm-i386/pgtable.h 2005-07-29 15:26:58.000000000 -0700
@@ -258,6 +258,18 @@
return test_and_clear_bit(_PAGE_BIT_ACCESSED, &ptep->pte_low);
}

+static inline pte_t ptep_get_and_clear_full(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr, pte_t *ptep, int full)
+{
+ pte_t pte;
+ if (full) {
+ pte = *ptep;
+ *ptep = __pte(0);
+ } else {
+ pte = ptep_get_and_clear(mm, addr, ptep);
+ }
+ return pte;
+}
+
static inline void ptep_set_wrprotect(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr, pte_t *ptep)
{
clear_bit(_PAGE_BIT_RW, &ptep->pte_low);
@@ -415,6 +427,7 @@
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_TEST_AND_CLEAR_YOUNG
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_TEST_AND_CLEAR_DIRTY
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_GET_AND_CLEAR
+#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_GET_AND_CLEAR_FULL
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_SET_WRPROTECT
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTE_SAME
#include <asm-generic/pgtable.h>
Index: linux-2.6.13/mm/memory.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.13.orig/mm/memory.c 2005-07-29 11:03:11.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6.13/mm/memory.c 2005-07-29 15:26:58.000000000 -0700
@@ -551,7 +551,7 @@
page->index > details->last_index))
continue;
}
- ptent = ptep_get_and_clear(tlb->mm, addr, pte);
+ ptent = ptep_get_and_clear_full(tlb->mm, addr, pte, tlb->fullmm);
tlb_remove_tlb_entry(tlb, pte, addr);
if (unlikely(!page))
continue;
@@ -579,7 +579,7 @@
continue;
if (!pte_file(ptent))
free_swap_and_cache(pte_to_swp_entry(ptent));
- pte_clear(tlb->mm, addr, pte);
+ pte_clear_full(tlb->mm, addr, pte, tlb->fullmm);
} while (pte++, addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);
pte_unmap(pte - 1);
}Any architecture that has hardware updated A/D bits that require
synchronization against other processors during PTE operations
can benefit from doing non-atomic PTE updates during address space
destruction. Originally done on i386, now ported to x86_64.

Doing a read/write pair instead of an xchg() operation saves the
implicit lock, which turns out to be a big win on 32-bit (esp w PAE).

Diffs-against: 2.6.13-rc5-mm1
Signed-off-by: Zachary Amsden <zach@vmware.com>
Index: linux-2.6.13-rc5-mm1/include/asm-x86_64/pgtable.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.13-rc5-mm1.orig/include/asm-x86_64/pgtable.h 2005-08-07 04:56:37.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6.13-rc5-mm1/include/asm-x86_64/pgtable.h 2005-08-07 04:59:18.601856096 -0700
@@ -104,6 +104,19 @@
((unsigned long) __va(pud_val(pud) & PHYSICAL_PAGE_MASK))

#define ptep_get_and_clear(mm,addr,xp) __pte(xchg(&(xp)->pte, 0))
+
+static inline pte_t ptep_get_and_clear_full(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr, pte_t *ptep, int full)
+{
+ pte_t pte;
+ if (full) {
+ pte = *ptep;
+ *ptep = __pte(0);
+ } else {
+ pte = ptep_get_and_clear(mm, addr, ptep);
+ }
+ return pte;
+}
+
#define pte_same(a, b) ((a).pte == (b).pte)

#define PMD_SIZE (1UL << PMD_SHIFT)
@@ -433,6 +446,7 @@
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_TEST_AND_CLEAR_YOUNG
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_TEST_AND_CLEAR_DIRTY
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_GET_AND_CLEAR
+#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_GET_AND_CLEAR_FULL
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_SET_WRPROTECT
#define __HAVE_ARCH_PTE_SAME
#include <asm-generic/pgtable.h>
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