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Subject[RFC] RCU and CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT progress, part 2
Hello!

More progress on CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT-compatible RCU.

o Earlier this week, declared my CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT education
complete enough to take on a counter-based approach.

o Selected a simple counter-based approach, and created
a Promela model of it, which passes spin. See attached
"ctrflipRCU.spin" and "ctrflipRCU.sh" files. The
spin analyzer is open-source software, available at
http://spinroot.com/spin/whatispin.html if you want to check
it out. Will be running the model by some people here early
next week.

o Started prototyping Linux-kernel implementation, initially
in the CONFIG_PREEMPT environment. (Yes, I am still being
cowardly!) The implementation is as follows:

o Use a per-CPU pair of counters to track the number
of outstanding RCU read-side critical sections
started on the corresponding CPU (though these may
have migrated to some other CPU in the meantime).

o In case of a race with the flipping of the counters,
just increment the other counter for the corresponding
CPU. This suppresses further counter flips.

o Grace-period advancement depends entirely on
synchronize_rcu() calls. If your workload avoids
making any synchronize_kernel() calls (which is not
hard to do given that call_rcu() is often used
instead of synchronize_rcu()), then RCU will be
a big memory leak. (This will be fixed later.)

o In theory, you can "cat /proc/rcugp" to force the
kernel to invoke synchronize_rcu(), but I have not tested
this yet, and will not do so until it actually boots. ;-)
The long-term fix will likely involve periodic
grace-period forcing from a kernel task or from the
workqueue environment.

o The rcu_read_lock() and rcu_read_unlock() primitives
still use heavy-weight atomic operations in the common
case (avoided only in the case of nested rcu_read_lock()
calls). Longer term, I expect to make changes to avoid
the atomics in the (hopefully) common case where there
is no preemption of RCU read-side critical sections.
But simple things first!

o The rcu_read_lock() and rcu_read_unlock() primitives
use memory-barrier instructions. In theory, it is
possible to dispense with these, but doing so requires
some very strange code. Not clear that this is practical.

o Started running tests in vanilla CONFIG_PREEMPT environment
to check solidity with stock RCU. Will need solid base when
stress-test time arrives.

Extremely broken patch included below for your amusement. Feel free to
take bets on how much it differs from the eventual working patch. ;-)

Thanx, Paul

Not-signed-off-by: paulmck@us.ibm.com

diff -urpN -X dontdiff linux-2.6.12-rc6/arch/i386/Kconfig linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/arch/i386/Kconfig
--- linux-2.6.12-rc6/arch/i386/Kconfig Fri Jun 17 16:34:16 2005
+++ linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/arch/i386/Kconfig Fri Jun 24 10:22:39 2005
@@ -523,6 +523,19 @@ config PREEMPT
Say Y here if you are building a kernel for a desktop, embedded
or real-time system. Say N if you are unsure.

+config PREEMPT_RCU
+ bool "Preemptible RCU read-side critical sections"
+ default y
+ help
+ This option reduces the latency of the kernel when reacting to
+ real-time or interactive events by allowing a low priority process to
+ be preempted even if it is in an RCU read-side critical section.
+ This allows applications to run more reliably even when the system is
+ under load.
+
+ Say Y here if you enjoy debugging random oopses.
+ Say N if, for whatever reason, you want your kernel to actually work.
+
config PREEMPT_BKL
bool "Preempt The Big Kernel Lock"
depends on PREEMPT
diff -urpN -X dontdiff linux-2.6.12-rc6/fs/proc/proc_misc.c linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/fs/proc/proc_misc.c
--- linux-2.6.12-rc6/fs/proc/proc_misc.c Fri Jun 17 16:35:03 2005
+++ linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/fs/proc/proc_misc.c Thu Jun 23 21:42:30 2005
@@ -549,6 +549,20 @@ void create_seq_entry(char *name, mode_t
entry->proc_fops = f;
}

+#define RCU_STATS
+
+#ifdef RCU_STATS
+int rcu_read_proc_gp(char *page, char **start, off_t off,
+ int count, int *eof, void *data)
+{
+ int len;
+ extern int rcu_read_proc_gp_data(char *page);
+
+ len = rcu_read_proc_gp_data(page);
+ return proc_calc_metrics(page, start, off, count, eof, len);
+}
+#endif /* #ifdef RCU_STATS */
+
void __init proc_misc_init(void)
{
struct proc_dir_entry *entry;
@@ -571,6 +585,9 @@ void __init proc_misc_init(void)
{"cmdline", cmdline_read_proc},
{"locks", locks_read_proc},
{"execdomains", execdomains_read_proc},
+#ifdef RCU_STATS
+ {"rcugp", rcu_read_proc_gp},
+#endif /* #ifdef RCU_STATS */
{NULL,}
};
for (p = simple_ones; p->name; p++)
diff -urpN -X dontdiff linux-2.6.12-rc6/include/linux/rcupdate.h linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/include/linux/rcupdate.h
--- linux-2.6.12-rc6/include/linux/rcupdate.h Fri Jun 17 16:35:13 2005
+++ linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/include/linux/rcupdate.h Fri Jun 24 14:59:04 2005
@@ -59,6 +59,7 @@ struct rcu_head {
} while (0)


+#ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU

/* Global control variables for rcupdate callback mechanism. */
struct rcu_ctrlblk {
@@ -192,6 +193,18 @@ static inline int rcu_pending(int cpu)
*/
#define rcu_read_unlock() preempt_enable()

+#else /* #ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */
+
+#define rcu_qsctr_inc(cpu)
+#define rcu_bh_qsctr_inc(cpu)
+#define call_rcu_bh(head, rcu) call_rcu(head, rcu)
+
+extern void rcu_read_lock(void);
+extern void rcu_read_unlock(void);
+extern int rcu_pending(int cpu);
+
+#endif /* #else #ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */
+
/*
* So where is rcu_write_lock()? It does not exist, as there is no
* way for writers to lock out RCU readers. This is a feature, not
@@ -213,14 +226,22 @@ static inline int rcu_pending(int cpu)
* can use just rcu_read_lock().
*
*/
+#ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU
#define rcu_read_lock_bh() local_bh_disable()
+#else /* #ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */
+#define rcu_read_lock_bh() { rcu_read_lock(); local_bh_disable(); }
+#endif /* #else #ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */

/*
* rcu_read_unlock_bh - marks the end of a softirq-only RCU critical section
*
* See rcu_read_lock_bh() for more information.
*/
+#ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU
#define rcu_read_unlock_bh() local_bh_enable()
+#else /* #ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */
+#define rcu_read_unlock_bh() { local_bh_enable(); rcu_read_unlock(); }
+#endif /* #else #ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */

/**
* rcu_dereference - fetch an RCU-protected pointer in an
@@ -238,6 +259,7 @@ static inline int rcu_pending(int cpu)
(_________p1); \
})

+
/**
* rcu_assign_pointer - assign (publicize) a pointer to a newly
* initialized structure that will be dereferenced by RCU read-side
@@ -256,6 +278,7 @@ static inline int rcu_pending(int cpu)
(p) = (v); \
})

+
/**
* synchronize_sched - block until all CPUs have exited any non-preemptive
* kernel code sequences.
@@ -269,7 +292,11 @@ static inline int rcu_pending(int cpu)
* synchronize_kernel() API. In contrast, synchronize_rcu() only
* guarantees that rcu_read_lock() sections will have completed.
*/
+#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU
+extern void synchronize_sched(void);
+#else /* #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */
#define synchronize_sched() synchronize_rcu()
+#endif /* #else #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */

extern void rcu_init(void);
extern void rcu_check_callbacks(int cpu, int user);
diff -urpN -X dontdiff linux-2.6.12-rc6/include/linux/sched.h linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/include/linux/sched.h
--- linux-2.6.12-rc6/include/linux/sched.h Fri Jun 17 16:35:13 2005
+++ linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/include/linux/sched.h Wed Jun 22 17:25:49 2005
@@ -740,6 +740,11 @@ struct task_struct {
nodemask_t mems_allowed;
int cpuset_mems_generation;
#endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU
+ int rcu_read_lock_nesting;
+ atomic_t *rcu_flipctr1;
+ atomic_t *rcu_flipctr2;
+#endif
};

static inline pid_t process_group(struct task_struct *tsk)
diff -urpN -X dontdiff linux-2.6.12-rc6/kernel/rcupdate.c linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/kernel/rcupdate.c
--- linux-2.6.12-rc6/kernel/rcupdate.c Fri Jun 17 16:35:15 2005
+++ linux-2.6.12-rc6-ctrRCU/kernel/rcupdate.c Fri Jun 24 17:47:26 2005
@@ -47,6 +47,8 @@
#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>

+#ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU
+
/* Definition for rcupdate control block. */
struct rcu_ctrlblk rcu_ctrlblk =
{ .cur = -300, .completed = -300 };
@@ -480,3 +482,342 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(call_rcu); /* WARNING: GP
EXPORT_SYMBOL(call_rcu_bh); /* WARNING: GPL-only in April 2006. */
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(synchronize_rcu);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(synchronize_kernel); /* WARNING: GPL-only in April 2006. */
+
+#else /* #ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT
+#error "Hey!!! This hasn't been tested yet!!! No way it works!!!"
+#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT */
+
+#define RCU_STATS
+
+#define raw_spinlock_t spinlock_t
+#define _raw_spin_lock(l) spin_lock(l)
+#define _raw_spin_unlock(l) spin_unlock(l)
+#define RAW_SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED
+
+struct rcu_data {
+ raw_spinlock_t lock;
+ long batch;
+ struct tasklet_struct rcu_tasklet;
+ struct rcu_head *nextlist;
+ struct rcu_head **nexttail;
+ struct rcu_head *waitlist;
+ struct rcu_head **waittail;
+ struct rcu_head *donelist;
+ struct rcu_head **donetail;
+};
+struct rcu_ctrlblk {
+ long batch;
+};
+static struct rcu_data rcu_data;
+static struct rcu_ctrlblk rcu_ctrlblk = {
+ .batch = 0,
+};
+DECLARE_MUTEX(rcu_flipmutex);
+static DEFINE_PER_CPU(atomic_t [2], rcu_flipctr) =
+ { ATOMIC_INIT(0), ATOMIC_INIT(0) };
+
+void
+rcu_read_lock(void)
+{
+ int flipctr;
+
+ if (current->rcu_read_lock_nesting++ == 0) {
+
+ /*
+ * Outermost nesting of rcu_read_lock(), so atomically
+ * increment the current counter for the current CPU.
+ */
+
+ preempt_disable();
+ flipctr = rcu_data.batch & 0x1;
+ smp_read_barrier_depends();
+ current->rcu_flipctr1 = &(__get_cpu_var(rcu_flipctr)[flipctr]);
+ /* Can optimize to non-atomic on fastpath, but start simple. */
+ atomic_inc(current->rcu_flipctr1);
+ smp_mb__after_atomic_inc(); /* might optimize out... */
+ if (flipctr != (rcu_data.batch & 0x1)) {
+
+ /*
+ * We raced with grace-period processing (flip).
+ * Although we cannot be preempted here, there
+ * could be interrupts, ECC errors and the like,
+ * so just nail down both sides of the rcu_flipctr
+ * array for the duration of our RCU read-side
+ * critical section, preventing a second flip
+ * from racing with us. At some point, it would
+ * be safe to decrement one of the counter, but
+ * we have no way of knowing when that would be.
+ * So just decrement them both in rcu_read_unlock().
+ */
+
+ current->rcu_flipctr2 =
+ &(__get_cpu_var(rcu_flipctr)[!flipctr]);
+ /* Can again optimize to non-atomic on fastpath. */
+ atomic_inc(current->rcu_flipctr2);
+ smp_mb__after_atomic_inc(); /* might optimize out... */
+ }
+ preempt_enable();
+ }
+}
+
+void
+rcu_read_unlock(void)
+{
+
+ if (--current->rcu_read_lock_nesting == 0) {
+
+ /*
+ * Just atomically decrement whatever we incremented.
+ * Might later want to awaken some task waiting for the
+ * grace period to complete, but keep it simple for the
+ * moment.
+ */
+
+ smp_mb__before_atomic_dec();
+ atomic_dec(current->rcu_flipctr1);
+ current->rcu_flipctr1 = NULL;
+ if (current->rcu_flipctr2 != NULL) {
+ atomic_dec(current->rcu_flipctr2);
+ current->rcu_flipctr2 = NULL;
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+static void
+__rcu_advance_callbacks(void)
+{
+ if (rcu_data.batch != rcu_ctrlblk.batch) {
+ if (rcu_data.waitlist != NULL) {
+ *rcu_data.donetail = rcu_data.waitlist;
+ rcu_data.donetail = rcu_data.waittail;
+ }
+ if (rcu_data.nextlist != NULL) {
+ rcu_data.waitlist = rcu_data.nextlist;
+ rcu_data.waittail = rcu_data.nexttail;
+ rcu_data.nextlist = NULL;
+ rcu_data.nexttail = &rcu_data.nextlist;
+ } else {
+ rcu_data.waitlist = NULL;
+ rcu_data.waittail = &rcu_data.waitlist;
+ }
+ rcu_data.batch = rcu_ctrlblk.batch;
+ }
+}
+
+void
+call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head,
+ void (*func)(struct rcu_head *rcu))
+{
+ head->func = func;
+ head->next = NULL;
+ _raw_spin_lock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ __rcu_advance_callbacks();
+ *rcu_data.waittail = head;
+ rcu_data.waittail = &head->next;
+ _raw_spin_unlock(&rcu_data.lock);
+}
+
+void
+rcu_check_callbacks(int cpu, int user)
+{
+ _raw_spin_lock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ __rcu_advance_callbacks();
+ if (rcu_data.donelist == NULL) {
+ _raw_spin_unlock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ return;
+ }
+ _raw_spin_unlock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ tasklet_schedule(&rcu_data.rcu_tasklet);
+}
+
+static
+void rcu_process_callbacks(unsigned long data)
+{
+ struct rcu_head *next, *list;
+
+ _raw_spin_lock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ list = rcu_data.donelist;
+ if (list == NULL) {
+ _raw_spin_unlock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ return;
+ }
+ rcu_data.donelist = NULL;
+ rcu_data.donetail = &rcu_data.donelist;
+ _raw_spin_unlock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ while (list) {
+ next = list->next;
+ list->func(list);
+ list = next;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Force a single flip of the counters. Remember, a single flip does
+ * -not- constitute a grace period. Instead, the interval between
+ * a pair of consecutive flips is a grace period.
+ *
+ * If anyone is nuts enough to run this CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU implementation
+ * on a large SMP, they might want to use a hierarchical organization of
+ * the per-CPU-counter pairs.
+ */
+static void
+__synchronize_rcu_flip(void)
+{
+ int cpu;
+ long flipctr;
+
+ flipctr = rcu_data.batch;
+ down(&rcu_flipmutex);
+ if (flipctr != rcu_data.batch) {
+
+ /* Our work is done! ;-) */
+
+ up(&rcu_flipmutex);
+ return;
+ }
+ flipctr &= 0x1;
+
+ /*
+ * Wait for the completion of all RCU read-side critical sections
+ * that started prior to the previous flip.
+ */
+
+ for_each_cpu(cpu) {
+ while (atomic_read(&per_cpu(rcu_flipctr, cpu)[!flipctr]) != 0) {
+ set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+ schedule_timeout(HZ / 100);
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* Do the flip. */
+
+ smp_mb();
+ rcu_data.batch++;
+ smp_mb(); /* Not 100% certain that this one is required. */
+ /* In fact, it seems likely that it can go. */
+
+ /* A bit awkward -- looking ahead to per-CPU callback queues. */
+ /* Process callbacks... */
+
+ _raw_spin_lock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ __rcu_advance_callbacks();
+ _raw_spin_unlock(&rcu_data.lock);
+ tasklet_schedule(&rcu_data.rcu_tasklet);
+
+ up(&rcu_flipmutex);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Force a single flip of the counters, but do it lazily, waiting
+ * a bit to see if someone else will do it for us.
+ */
+static void
+synchronize_rcu_flip(void)
+{
+ long oldbatch = rcu_data.batch;
+
+ set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+ schedule_timeout(HZ / 100);
+ if ((rcu_data.batch - oldbatch) >= 2) {
+
+ /* Our work is done! */
+
+ return;
+ }
+
+ /* No one else did it for us, so force the flip. */
+
+ __synchronize_rcu_flip();
+}
+
+void
+synchronize_rcu(void)
+{
+ long oldbatch = rcu_data.batch;
+
+ /* Need two flips to get a grace period. */
+
+ synchronize_rcu_flip();
+
+ if ((rcu_data.batch - oldbatch) >= 2) {
+
+ /* Someone else helped with the second flip, we are done! */
+
+ return;
+ }
+
+ synchronize_rcu_flip();
+}
+
+/*
+ * Crude hack, reduces but does not eliminate possibility of failure.
+ * Needs to wait for all CPUs to pass through a -voluntary- context
+ * switch to eliminate possibility of failure. (Maybe just crank
+ * priority down...)
+ */
+void
+synchronize_sched(void)
+{
+ cpumask_t oldmask;
+ int cpu;
+
+ if (sched_getaffinity(0, &oldmask) < 0) {
+ oldmask = cpu_possible_map;
+ }
+ for_each_cpu(cpu) {
+ sched_setaffinity(0, cpumask_of_cpu(cpu));
+ schedule();
+ }
+ sched_setaffinity(0, oldmask);
+}
+
+int
+rcu_pending(int cpu)
+{
+ return (rcu_data.donelist != NULL ||
+ rcu_data.waitlist != NULL ||
+ rcu_data.nextlist != NULL);
+}
+
+void __init rcu_init(void)
+{
+ rcu_data.lock = RAW_SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED;
+ rcu_data.batch = 0;
+ rcu_data.nextlist = NULL;
+ rcu_data.nexttail = &rcu_data.nextlist;
+ rcu_data.waitlist = NULL;
+ rcu_data.waittail = &rcu_data.waitlist;
+ rcu_data.donelist = NULL;
+ rcu_data.donetail = &rcu_data.donelist;
+ tasklet_init(&rcu_data.rcu_tasklet, rcu_process_callbacks, 0UL);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Deprecated, use synchronize_rcu() or synchronize_sched() instead.
+ */
+void synchronize_kernel(void)
+{
+ synchronize_rcu();
+}
+
+#ifdef RCU_STATS
+int rcu_read_proc_gp_data(char *page)
+{
+ long oldgp = rcu_ctrlblk.batch;
+
+ synchronize_rcu();
+ return sprintf(page, "oldggp=%ld newggp=%ld\n",
+ oldgp, rcu_ctrlblk.batch);
+}
+#endif /* #ifdef RCU_STATS */
+
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(call_rcu); /* WARNING: GPL-only in April 2006. */
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(synchronize_rcu);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(synchronize_sched); /* WARNING: GPL-only in April 2006. */
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(rcu_read_lock); /* WARNING: GPL-only in April 2006. */
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(rcu_read_unlock); /* WARNING: GPL-only in April 2006. */
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(synchronize_kernel); /* WARNING: Removal in April 2006. */
+
+#endif /* #else #ifndef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */#define PASSES 10

bit flip = 0;
bit ctr[2];
byte passctr = 0;

proctype rdr()
{
bit lcl_flip;
bit both;
do
:: passctr < PASSES ->
lcl_flip = flip;
/* need smp_read_barrier_depends() */
ctr[lcl_flip]++;
/* need smp_mb__after_atomic_inc() */
if
:: lcl_flip == flip ->
both = 0
:: else ->
ctr[!lcl_flip]++;
/* need smp_mb__after_atomic_inc() */
both = 1
fi;
passctr++;
passctr++;
/* need smp_mb__before_atomic_dec() */
ctr[lcl_flip]--;
if
:: both ->
ctr[!lcl_flip]--;
:: else -> skip
fi;
:: passctr >= PASSES ->
break
od
}
proctype upd()
{
byte lcl_passctr;
do
:: passctr < PASSES ->
lcl_passctr = passctr;
if
:: lcl_passctr / 2 * 2 == lcl_passctr ->
lcl_passctr = 255
:: else -> skip
fi;
do
:: ctr[!flip] == 0 -> break
:: true -> skip
od;
/* Need smp_mb()? */
flip = !flip;
/* Need smp_mb()? */
do
:: ctr[!flip] == 0 -> break
:: true -> skip
od;
assert(lcl_passctr != passctr);
:: passctr >= PASSES ->
break
od
}
init {
atomic {
ctr[0] = 0;
ctr[1] = 0;
run rdr();
run upd();
}
}[unhandled content-type:application/x-sh]
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