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SubjectRace condition in ptrace
Working with the new UML skas0 mode on my Xeon HT host, sporadically I saw
some processes on UML segfaulting.

In all cases, I could track this down to be caused by a gs segment register,
that had the wrong contents.

This again is caused by a problem in the host linux: A ptraced child going to
stop and having woken up its parent, will save some of its registers (on i386
they are fs, gs and the fp-registers) very late in switch_to. The parent is
granted access to child's registers as soon, as the child is removed from
the runqueue. Thus, in rare cases, the parent might access child's register
savearea before the registers really are saved.

This problem might also be the reason for problems with floatpoint on UML,
that were reported some time ago.

I've written a test program, that reproduces the problem on my 2.6.9 vanilla
host quite quick. Using SuSE kernel 2.6.5-7.97-smp, I can't reproduce the
problem, although the relevant parts seem to be unchanged. Maybe not related
changes modify the timing?

I also created a patch, that fixes the problem on my 2.6.9 host. This probably
isn't a sane patch, but is enough to demonstrate, where I think, the bug is.
Both files are attached.

Bodo
--- a/include/linux/sched.h 2005-02-02 22:15:51.000000000 +0100
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h 2005-02-02 22:22:54.000000000 +0100
@@ -584,6 +584,7 @@ struct task_struct {
struct mempolicy *mempolicy;
short il_next; /* could be shared with used_math */
#endif
+ volatile long saving;
};

static inline pid_t process_group(struct task_struct *tsk)
--- a/kernel/sched.c 2005-02-02 21:32:51.000000000 +0100
+++ b/kernel/sched.c 2005-02-02 22:12:14.000000000 +0100
@@ -2689,8 +2689,10 @@ need_resched:
if (unlikely((prev->state & TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE) &&
unlikely(signal_pending(prev))))
prev->state = TASK_RUNNING;
- else
+ else {
+ prev->saving = 1;
deactivate_task(prev, rq);
+ }
}

cpu = smp_processor_id();
--- a/kernel/ptrace.c 2005-02-02 22:12:33.000000000 +0100
+++ b/kernel/ptrace.c 2005-02-02 22:20:46.000000000 +0100
@@ -96,6 +96,7 @@ int ptrace_check_attach(struct task_stru

if (!ret && !kill) {
wait_task_inactive(child);
+ while ( child->saving ) ;
}

/* All systems go.. */
--- a/arch/i386/kernel/process.c 2005-02-02 22:18:29.000000000 +0100
+++ b/arch/i386/kernel/process.c 2005-02-02 22:19:22.000000000 +0100
@@ -577,6 +577,9 @@ struct task_struct fastcall * __switch_t
asm volatile("movl %%fs,%0":"=m" (*(int *)&prev->fs));
asm volatile("movl %%gs,%0":"=m" (*(int *)&prev->gs));

+ wmb();
+ prev_p->saving=0;
+
/*
* Restore %fs and %gs if needed.
*/#include <signal.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sched.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/ptrace.h>
#include <asm/ptrace.h>
#include <asm/unistd.h>
#include <asm/ldt.h>

void
write_ldt( int number)
{
struct user_desc desc;
int ret;
memset(&desc, 0, sizeof( desc));
desc.entry_number = number;
desc.base_addr = 0x400179a0;
desc.limit = 0xffffffff;
desc.seg_32bit = 1;
desc.limit_in_pages = 1;
desc.useable = 1;
ret = modify_ldt(1, &desc, sizeof( desc));
if ( ret )
printf("modify_ldt(write): ret=%d, errno=%d\n", ret, errno);
}
int
child_fn( void)
{
unsigned int fs=7, new_fs;
write_ldt(0);

asm volatile ("movl %0,%%fs": : "m" (fs));

if ( ptrace( PTRACE_TRACEME, 0, (void *)0, (void *)0) ) {
perror("ptrace( PTRACE_TRACEME, 0, 0, 0)");
exit(1);
}
asm volatile ("int $3");
asm volatile("movl %%fs,%0":"=m" (new_fs));
new_fs &= 0xffff;
if ( new_fs != (fs ^ 7) ) {
printf("Child: wrong fs = %d\n", new_fs);
exit(1);
}
fs = new_fs;

printf("Child: fs changed to %d\n", fs);

asm volatile ("int $3");
}

int
parent_fn( pid_t child)
{
int ret, status;
unsigned long regs[FRAME_SIZE];
ret = waitpid( child, &status, 0);
if ( ret != child ) {
fprintf( stderr, "Parent: ");
perror("waitpid");
exit(1);
}
if ( !WIFSTOPPED(status) || WSTOPSIG(status) != SIGTRAP ) {
printf("\nParent: Childs status is %x: exiting\n", status);
fflush( stdout);
return (status != 0);
}
if ( ptrace( PTRACE_GETREGS, child, 0, regs) ) {
fprintf( stderr, "Parent: ");
perror("ptrace(GETREGS)");
exit(1);
}
while (1) {
regs[FS] ^= 7;
if ( ptrace( PTRACE_SETREGS, child, 0, regs) ) {
fprintf( stderr, "Parent: ");
perror("ptrace(GETREGS)");
exit(1);
}
if ( ptrace( PTRACE_CONT, child, 0, 0) < 0 ) {
fprintf( stderr, "Parent: ");
perror("ptrace( PTRACE_CONT, 0, 0, 0)");
exit(1);
}
ret = waitpid( child, &status, 0);
if ( ret != child ) {
fprintf( stderr, "Parent: ");
perror("waitpid");
exit(1);
}
if ( !WIFSTOPPED(status) || WSTOPSIG(status) != SIGTRAP ) {
printf("\nParent: Childs status is %x: exiting\n", status);
fflush( stdout);
return (status != 0);
}
}
}

int
main( int argc, char ** argv)
{
int res;
pid_t child;
child = fork();

if ( child < 0 ) {
perror("fork");
exit(1);
}
else if ( child ) {
res = parent_fn( child);
return res;
} else {
res = child_fn();
return res;
}
}
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