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Subject[patch 1/4] mm: page refcount use atomic primitives
Date
The VM has an interesting race where a page refcount can drop to zero, but
it is still on the LRU lists for a short time. This was solved by testing
a 0->1 refcount transition when picking up pages from the LRU, and dropping
the refcount in that case.

Instead, use atomic_inc_not_zero to ensure we never pick up a 0 refcount
page from the LRU (ie. we guarantee the page will not be touched).

This ensures we can test PageLRU without taking the lru_lock, and allows
further optimisations (in later patches).

Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de>

Index: linux-2.6/include/linux/mm.h
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/include/linux/mm.h
+++ linux-2.6/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -281,49 +281,52 @@ struct page {
*
* Also, many kernel routines increase the page count before a critical
* routine so they can be sure the page doesn't go away from under them.
- *
- * Since 2.6.6 (approx), a free page has ->_count = -1. This is so that we
- * can use atomic_add_negative(-1, page->_count) to detect when the page
- * becomes free and so that we can also use atomic_inc_and_test to atomically
- * detect when we just tried to grab a ref on a page which some other CPU has
- * already deemed to be freeable.
- *
- * NO code should make assumptions about this internal detail! Use the provided
- * macros which retain the old rules: page_count(page) == 0 is a free page.
*/

/*
* Drop a ref, return true if the logical refcount fell to zero (the page has
* no users)
*/
-#define put_page_testzero(p) \
- ({ \
- BUG_ON(page_count(p) == 0); \
- atomic_add_negative(-1, &(p)->_count); \
- })
+static inline int put_page_testzero(struct page *page)
+{
+ BUG_ON(atomic_read(&page->_count) == 0);
+ return atomic_dec_and_test(&page->_count);
+}

/*
* Grab a ref, return true if the page previously had a logical refcount of
* zero. ie: returns true if we just grabbed an already-deemed-to-be-free page
*/
-#define get_page_testone(p) atomic_inc_and_test(&(p)->_count)
+static inline int get_page_unless_zero(struct page *page)
+{
+ return atomic_inc_not_zero(&page->_count);
+}

-#define set_page_count(p,v) atomic_set(&(p)->_count, v - 1)
-#define __put_page(p) atomic_dec(&(p)->_count)
+static inline void set_page_count(struct page *page, int v)
+{
+ atomic_set(&page->_count, v);
+}
+
+static inline void __put_page(struct page *page)
+{
+ BUG_ON(atomic_read(&page->_count) == 0);
+ atomic_dec(&page->_count);
+}

extern void FASTCALL(__page_cache_release(struct page *));

static inline int page_count(struct page *page)
{
- if (PageCompound(page))
+ if (unlikely(PageCompound(page)))
page = (struct page *)page_private(page);
- return atomic_read(&page->_count) + 1;
+ return atomic_read(&page->_count);
}

static inline void get_page(struct page *page)
{
if (unlikely(PageCompound(page)))
page = (struct page *)page_private(page);
+ BUG_ON(atomic_read(&page->_count) == 0);
atomic_inc(&page->_count);
}

Index: linux-2.6/mm/vmscan.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/mm/vmscan.c
+++ linux-2.6/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -599,24 +599,20 @@ static int isolate_lru_pages(int nr_to_s
int scan = 0;

while (scan++ < nr_to_scan && !list_empty(src)) {
+ struct list_head *target;
page = lru_to_page(src);
prefetchw_prev_lru_page(page, src, flags);

- if (!TestClearPageLRU(page))
- BUG();
+ BUG_ON(!PageLRU(page));
list_del(&page->lru);
- if (get_page_testone(page)) {
- /*
- * It is being freed elsewhere
- */
- __put_page(page);
- SetPageLRU(page);
- list_add(&page->lru, src);
- continue;
- } else {
- list_add(&page->lru, dst);
+ target = src;
+ if (get_page_unless_zero(page)) {
+ ClearPageLRU(page);
+ target = dst;
nr_taken++;
- }
+ } /* else it is being freed elsewhere */
+
+ list_add(&page->lru, target);
}

*scanned = scan;
Index: linux-2.6/mm/swap.c
===================================================================
--- linux-2.6.orig/mm/swap.c
+++ linux-2.6/mm/swap.c
@@ -174,17 +174,19 @@ void lru_add_drain(void)
*/
void fastcall __page_cache_release(struct page *page)
{
- unsigned long flags;
- struct zone *zone = page_zone(page);
+ if (PageLRU(page)) {
+ unsigned long flags;

- spin_lock_irqsave(&zone->lru_lock, flags);
- if (TestClearPageLRU(page))
+ struct zone *zone = page_zone(page);
+ spin_lock_irqsave(&zone->lru_lock, flags);
+ if (!TestClearPageLRU(page))
+ BUG();
del_page_from_lru(zone, page);
- if (page_count(page) != 0)
- page = NULL;
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&zone->lru_lock, flags);
- if (page)
- free_hot_page(page);
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&zone->lru_lock, flags);
+ }
+
+ BUG_ON(page_count(page) != 0);
+ free_hot_page(page);
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(__page_cache_release);
@@ -210,27 +212,31 @@ void release_pages(struct page **pages,
pagevec_init(&pages_to_free, cold);
for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
struct page *page = pages[i];
- struct zone *pagezone;

if (!put_page_testzero(page))
continue;

- pagezone = page_zone(page);
- if (pagezone != zone) {
- if (zone)
- spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
- zone = pagezone;
- spin_lock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
- }
- if (TestClearPageLRU(page))
+ if (PageLRU(page)) {
+ struct zone *pagezone = page_zone(page);
+ if (pagezone != zone) {
+ if (zone)
+ spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
+ zone = pagezone;
+ spin_lock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
+ }
+ if (!TestClearPageLRU(page))
+ BUG();
del_page_from_lru(zone, page);
- if (page_count(page) == 0) {
- if (!pagevec_add(&pages_to_free, page)) {
+ }
+ BUG_ON(page_count(page));
+
+ if (!pagevec_add(&pages_to_free, page)) {
+ if (zone) {
spin_unlock_irq(&zone->lru_lock);
- __pagevec_free(&pages_to_free);
- pagevec_reinit(&pages_to_free);
- zone = NULL; /* No lock is held */
+ zone = NULL;
}
+ __pagevec_free(&pages_to_free);
+ pagevec_reinit(&pages_to_free);
}
}
if (zone)
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