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Subject[PATCH 10/19] readahead: state based method
This is the fast code path.

Major steps:
- estimate a thrashing safe ra_size;
- assemble the next read-ahead request in file_ra_state;
- submit it.

Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <wfg@mail.ustc.edu.cn>
---
include/linux/fs.h | 8 +
include/linux/mm.h | 6
mm/memory.c | 1
mm/readahead.c | 355 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
mm/swap.c | 2
mm/vmscan.c | 3
6 files changed, 374 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
--- linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1.orig/include/linux/fs.h
+++ linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1/include/linux/fs.h
@@ -604,13 +604,19 @@ struct file_ra_state {
unsigned long start; /* Current window */
unsigned long size;
unsigned long flags; /* ra flags RA_FLAG_xxx*/
- unsigned long cache_hit; /* cache hit count*/
+ uint64_t cache_hit; /* cache hit count*/
unsigned long prev_page; /* Cache last read() position */
unsigned long ahead_start; /* Ahead window */
unsigned long ahead_size;
unsigned long ra_pages; /* Maximum readahead window */
unsigned long mmap_hit; /* Cache hit stat for mmap accesses */
unsigned long mmap_miss; /* Cache miss stat for mmap accesses */
+
+ unsigned long age;
+ pgoff_t la_index;
+ pgoff_t ra_index;
+ pgoff_t lookahead_index;
+ pgoff_t readahead_index;
};
#define RA_FLAG_MISS 0x01 /* a cache miss occured against this file */
#define RA_FLAG_INCACHE 0x02 /* file is already in cache */
--- linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1.orig/include/linux/mm.h
+++ linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -1009,6 +1009,12 @@ static inline int prefer_adaptive_readah
return readahead_ratio > 9;
}

+DECLARE_PER_CPU(unsigned long, readahead_aging);
+static inline void inc_readahead_aging(void)
+{
+ __get_cpu_var(readahead_aging)++;
+}
+
/* Do stack extension */
extern int expand_stack(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address);
#ifdef CONFIG_IA64
--- linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1.orig/mm/memory.c
+++ linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1/mm/memory.c
@@ -1894,6 +1894,7 @@ static int do_anonymous_page(struct mm_s
page_table = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address, &ptl);
if (!pte_none(*page_table))
goto release;
+ inc_readahead_aging();
inc_mm_counter(mm, anon_rss);
lru_cache_add_active(page);
SetPageReferenced(page);
--- linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1.orig/mm/vmscan.c
+++ linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -539,6 +539,9 @@ static int shrink_list(struct list_head
goto activate_locked;
}

+ if (!PageReferenced(page))
+ inc_readahead_aging();
+
referenced = page_referenced(page, 1, sc->priority <= 0);
/* In active use or really unfreeable? Activate it. */
if (referenced && page_mapping_inuse(page))
--- linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1.orig/mm/swap.c
+++ linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1/mm/swap.c
@@ -124,6 +124,8 @@ void fastcall mark_page_accessed(struct
ClearPageReferenced(page);
} else if (!PageReferenced(page)) {
SetPageReferenced(page);
+ if (PageLRU(page) && !PageActivate(page))
+ inc_readahead_aging();
}
}

--- linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1.orig/mm/readahead.c
+++ linux-2.6.15-rc2-mm1/mm/readahead.c
@@ -38,6 +38,12 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(readahead_hit_rate);
int readahead_live_chunk = 2 * MAX_RA_PAGES;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(readahead_live_chunk);

+/* Analog to zone->aging_total.
+ * But mainly increased on fresh page references, so is much more smoother.
+ */
+DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long, readahead_aging);
+EXPORT_PER_CPU_SYMBOL(readahead_aging);
+
/* Detailed classification of read-ahead behaviors. */
#define RA_CLASS_SHIFT 3
#define RA_CLASS_MASK ((1 << RA_CLASS_SHIFT) - 1)
@@ -97,6 +103,7 @@ enum ra_event {
#include <linux/init.h>

u32 readahead_debug_level = 0;
+u32 debug_disable_stateful_method = 0;

static int __init readahead_init(void)
{
@@ -105,13 +112,26 @@ static int __init readahead_init(void)
root = debugfs_create_dir("readahead", NULL);

debugfs_create_u32("debug_level", 0644, root, &readahead_debug_level);
+ debugfs_create_bool("disable_stateful_method", 0644, root,
+ &debug_disable_stateful_method);

return 0;
}

module_init(readahead_init)
+
+static inline int disable_stateful_method(void)
+{
+ return debug_disable_stateful_method;
+}
+
#else /* !DEBUG_READAHEAD */

+static inline int disable_stateful_method(void)
+{
+ return 0;
+}
+
#endif /* DEBUG_READAHEAD */


@@ -807,6 +827,341 @@ out:
}

/*
+ * State based calculation of read-ahead request.
+ *
+ * This figure shows the meaning of file_ra_state members:
+ *
+ * chunk A chunk B
+ * +---------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
+ * | # | # |
+ * +---------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
+ * ^ ^ ^ ^
+ * la_index ra_index lookahead_index readahead_index
+ */
+
+/*
+ * The global effective length of the inactive_list(s).
+ */
+static unsigned long node_free_and_cold_pages(void)
+{
+ unsigned int i;
+ unsigned long sum = 0;
+ struct zone *zones = NODE_DATA(numa_node_id())->node_zones;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++)
+ sum += zones[i].nr_inactive +
+ zones[i].free_pages - zones[i].pages_low;
+
+ return sum;
+}
+
+/*
+ * A more smooth and timely analog to zone->aging_total.
+ */
+static unsigned long node_readahead_aging(void)
+{
+ unsigned long cpu;
+ unsigned long sum = 0;
+ cpumask_t mask = node_to_cpumask(numa_node_id());
+
+ for_each_cpu_mask(cpu, mask)
+ sum += per_cpu(readahead_aging, cpu);
+
+ return sum;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Set class of read-ahead
+ */
+static inline void set_ra_class(struct file_ra_state *ra,
+ enum ra_class ra_class)
+{
+ unsigned long FLAGS_MASK;
+ unsigned long flags;
+ unsigned long old_ra_class;
+
+ FLAGS_MASK = ~(RA_CLASS_MASK | (RA_CLASS_MASK << RA_CLASS_SHIFT));
+ flags = ra->flags & FLAGS_MASK;
+
+ old_ra_class = (ra->flags & RA_CLASS_MASK) << RA_CLASS_SHIFT;
+
+ ra->flags = flags | old_ra_class | ra_class;
+}
+
+/*
+ * The 64bit cache_hit stores three accumulated value and one counter value.
+ * MSB LSB
+ * 3333333333333333 : 2222222222222222 : 1111111111111111 : 0000000000000000
+ */
+static inline int ra_cache_hit(struct file_ra_state *ra, int nr)
+{
+ return (ra->cache_hit >> (nr * 16)) & 0xFFFF;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Conceptual code:
+ * ra_cache_hit(ra, 1) += ra_cache_hit(ra, 0);
+ * ra_cache_hit(ra, 0) = 0;
+ */
+static inline void ra_addup_cache_hit(struct file_ra_state *ra)
+{
+ int n;
+
+ n = ra_cache_hit(ra, 0);
+ ra->cache_hit -= n;
+ n <<= 16;
+ ra->cache_hit += n;
+}
+
+/*
+ * The read-ahead is deemed success if cache-hit-rate >= 1/readahead_hit_rate.
+ */
+static inline int ra_cache_hit_ok(struct file_ra_state *ra)
+{
+ return ra_cache_hit(ra, 0) * readahead_hit_rate >=
+ (ra->lookahead_index - ra->la_index);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Check if @index falls in the @ra request.
+ */
+static inline int ra_has_index(struct file_ra_state *ra, pgoff_t index)
+{
+ if (index < ra->la_index || index >= ra->readahead_index)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (index >= ra->ra_index)
+ return 1;
+ else
+ return -1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Prepare file_ra_state for a new read-ahead sequence.
+ */
+static inline void ra_state_init(struct file_ra_state *ra,
+ pgoff_t la_index, pgoff_t ra_index)
+{
+ ra_addup_cache_hit(ra);
+ ra->cache_hit <<= 16;
+ ra->lookahead_index = la_index;
+ ra->readahead_index = ra_index;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Take down a new read-ahead request in file_ra_state.
+ */
+static inline void ra_state_update(struct file_ra_state *ra,
+ unsigned long ra_size, unsigned long la_size)
+{
+#ifdef DEBUG_READAHEAD
+ unsigned long old_ra = ra->readahead_index - ra->ra_index;
+ if (ra_size < old_ra && ra_cache_hit(ra, 0))
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_READAHEAD_SHRINK, old_ra - ra_size);
+#endif
+ ra_addup_cache_hit(ra);
+ ra->ra_index = ra->readahead_index;
+ ra->la_index = ra->lookahead_index;
+ ra->readahead_index += ra_size;
+ ra->lookahead_index = ra->readahead_index - la_size;
+ ra->age = node_readahead_aging();
+}
+
+/*
+ * Adjust the read-ahead request in file_ra_state.
+ */
+static inline void ra_state_adjust(struct file_ra_state *ra,
+ unsigned long ra_size, unsigned long la_size)
+{
+ ra->readahead_index = ra->ra_index + ra_size;
+ ra->lookahead_index = ra->readahead_index - la_size;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Submit IO for the read-ahead request in file_ra_state.
+ */
+static int ra_dispatch(struct file_ra_state *ra,
+ struct address_space *mapping, struct file *filp)
+{
+ pgoff_t eof_index;
+ unsigned long ra_size;
+ unsigned long la_size;
+ int actual;
+ enum ra_class ra_class;
+
+ ra_class = (ra->flags & RA_CLASS_MASK);
+ BUG_ON(ra_class == 0 || ra_class > RA_CLASS_END);
+
+ eof_index = ((i_size_read(mapping->host) - 1) >> PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT) + 1;
+ ra_size = ra->readahead_index - ra->ra_index;
+ la_size = ra->readahead_index - ra->lookahead_index;
+
+ /* Snap to EOF. */
+ if (unlikely(ra->ra_index >= eof_index))
+ return 0;
+ if (ra->readahead_index + ra_size / 2 > eof_index) {
+ if (ra_class == RA_CLASS_CONTEXT_ACCELERATED &&
+ eof_index > ra->lookahead_index + 1)
+ la_size = eof_index - ra->lookahead_index;
+ else
+ la_size = 0;
+ ra_size = eof_index - ra->ra_index;
+ ra_state_adjust(ra, ra_size, la_size);
+ }
+
+ actual = __do_page_cache_readahead(mapping, filp,
+ ra->ra_index, ra_size, la_size);
+
+#ifdef READAHEAD_STREAMING
+ if (actual < ra_size) {
+ struct page *page = find_page(mapping, ra->ra_index + actual);
+ if (page)
+ rescue_pages(page, ra_size);
+ }
+#endif
+
+ if (ra->readahead_index == eof_index)
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_READAHEAD_EOF, actual);
+ if (la_size)
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_LOOKAHEAD, la_size);
+ ra_account(ra, RA_EVENT_READAHEAD, actual);
+
+ dprintk("readahead-%s(ino=%lu, index=%lu, ra=%lu+%lu-%lu) = %d\n",
+ ra_class_name[ra_class],
+ mapping->host->i_ino, ra->la_index,
+ ra->ra_index, ra_size, la_size, actual);
+
+ return actual;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Determine the request parameters from primitive values.
+ *
+ * It applies the following rules:
+ * - Substract ra_size by the old look-ahead to get real safe read-ahead;
+ * - Set new la_size according to the (still large) ra_size;
+ * - Apply upper limits;
+ * - Make sure stream_shift is not too small.
+ * (So that the next global_shift will not be too small.)
+ *
+ * Input:
+ * ra_size stores the estimated thrashing-threshold.
+ * la_size stores the look-ahead size of previous request.
+ */
+static inline int adjust_rala(unsigned long ra_max,
+ unsigned long *ra_size, unsigned long *la_size)
+{
+ unsigned long stream_shift = *la_size;
+
+ if (*ra_size > *la_size)
+ *ra_size -= *la_size;
+ else
+ return 0;
+
+ *la_size = *ra_size / LOOKAHEAD_RATIO;
+
+ if (*ra_size > ra_max)
+ *ra_size = ra_max;
+ if (*la_size > *ra_size)
+ *la_size = *ra_size;
+
+ stream_shift += (*ra_size - *la_size);
+ if (stream_shift < *ra_size / 4)
+ *la_size -= (*ra_size / 4 - stream_shift);
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * The function estimates two values:
+ * 1. thrashing-threshold for the current stream
+ * It is returned to make the next read-ahead request.
+ * 2. the remained space for the current chunk
+ * It will be checked to ensure that the current chunk is safe.
+ *
+ * The computation will be pretty accurate under heavy load, and will vibrate
+ * more with light load(small global_shift), so the grow speed of ra_size
+ * must be limited, and a moderate large stream_shift must be insured.
+ *
+ * This figure illustrates the formula used in the function:
+ * While the stream reads stream_shift pages inside the chunks,
+ * the chunks are shifted global_shift pages inside inactive_list.
+ *
+ * chunk A chunk B
+ * |<=============== global_shift ================|
+ * +-------------+ +-------------------+ |
+ * | # | | # | inactive_list |
+ * +-------------+ +-------------------+ head |
+ * |---->| |---------->|
+ * | |
+ * +-- stream_shift --+
+ */
+static inline unsigned long compute_thrashing_threshold(
+ struct file_ra_state *ra,
+ unsigned long *remain)
+{
+ unsigned long global_size;
+ unsigned long global_shift;
+ unsigned long stream_shift;
+ unsigned long ra_size;
+
+ global_size = node_free_and_cold_pages();
+ global_shift = node_readahead_aging() - ra->age + 1;
+ stream_shift = ra_cache_hit(ra, 0);
+
+ ra_size = stream_shift *
+ global_size * readahead_ratio / (100 * global_shift);
+
+ if (global_size > global_shift)
+ *remain = stream_shift *
+ (global_size - global_shift) / global_shift;
+ else
+ *remain = 0;
+
+ ddprintk("compute_thrashing_threshold: "
+ "ra=%lu=%lu*%lu/%lu, remain %lu for %lu\n",
+ ra_size, stream_shift, global_size, global_shift,
+ *remain, ra->readahead_index - ra->lookahead_index);
+
+ return ra_size;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Main function for file_ra_state based read-ahead.
+ */
+static inline unsigned long
+state_based_readahead(struct address_space *mapping, struct file *filp,
+ struct file_ra_state *ra, struct page *page,
+ unsigned long ra_max)
+{
+ unsigned long ra_old;
+ unsigned long ra_size;
+ unsigned long la_size;
+ unsigned long remain_space;
+ unsigned long growth_limit;
+
+ la_size = ra->readahead_index - ra->lookahead_index;
+ ra_old = ra->readahead_index - ra->ra_index;
+ ra_size = compute_thrashing_threshold(ra, &remain_space);
+
+ if (readahead_ratio < VM_READAHEAD_PROTECT_RATIO &&
+ remain_space <= la_size && la_size > 1) {
+ rescue_pages(page, la_size);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ growth_limit = 2 * ra_old + (ra_max - ra_old) / 16;
+ if (!adjust_rala(min(ra_max, growth_limit), &ra_size, &la_size))
+ return 0;
+
+ set_ra_class(ra, RA_CLASS_STATE);
+ ra_state_update(ra, ra_size, la_size);
+
+ return ra_dispatch(ra, mapping, filp);
+}
+
+
+/*
* ra_size is mainly determined by:
* 1. sequential-start: min(MIN_RA_PAGES + (pages>>14), KB(128))
* 2. sequential-max: min(ra->ra_pages, 0xFFFF)
--
-
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