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SubjectOOM fixes 2/5
From: Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de>
Subject: keep balance between different classzones

This is the forward port to 2.6 of the lowmem_reserved algorithm I
invented in 2.4.1*, merged in 2.4.2x already and needed to fix workloads
like google (especially without swap) on x86 with >1G of ram, but it's
needed in all sort of workloads with lots of ram on x86, it's also
needed on x86-64 for dma allocations. This brings 2.6 in sync with
latest 2.4.2x.

Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de>

--- mainline-2/include/linux/mmzone.h.orig 2005-01-15 20:45:00.000000000 +0100
+++ mainline-2/include/linux/mmzone.h 2005-01-21 05:55:28.644869648 +0100
@@ -112,18 +112,14 @@ struct zone {
unsigned long free_pages;
unsigned long pages_min, pages_low, pages_high;
/*
- * protection[] is a pre-calculated number of extra pages that must be
- * available in a zone in order for __alloc_pages() to allocate memory
- * from the zone. i.e., for a GFP_KERNEL alloc of "order" there must
- * be "(1<<order) + protection[ZONE_NORMAL]" free pages in the zone
- * for us to choose to allocate the page from that zone.
- *
- * It uses both min_free_kbytes and sysctl_lower_zone_protection.
- * The protection values are recalculated if either of these values
- * change. The array elements are in zonelist order:
- * [0] == GFP_DMA, [1] == GFP_KERNEL, [2] == GFP_HIGHMEM.
+ * We don't know if the memory that we're going to allocate will be freeable
+ * or/and it will be released eventually, so to avoid totally wasting several
+ * GB of ram we must reserve some of the lower zone memory (otherwise we risk
+ * to run OOM on the lower zones despite there's tons of freeable ram
+ * on the higher zones). This array is recalculated at runtime if the
+ * sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio sysctl changes.
*/
- unsigned long protection[MAX_NR_ZONES];
+ unsigned long lowmem_reserve[MAX_NR_ZONES];

struct per_cpu_pageset pageset[NR_CPUS];

@@ -368,7 +364,8 @@ struct ctl_table;
struct file;
int min_free_kbytes_sysctl_handler(struct ctl_table *, int, struct file *,
void __user *, size_t *, loff_t *);
-int lower_zone_protection_sysctl_handler(struct ctl_table *, int, struct file *,
+extern int sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio[MAX_NR_ZONES-1];
+int lowmem_reserve_ratio_sysctl_handler(struct ctl_table *, int, struct file *,
void __user *, size_t *, loff_t *);

#include <linux/topology.h>
--- mainline-2/include/linux/sysctl.h.orig 2005-01-15 20:45:00.000000000 +0100
+++ mainline-2/include/linux/sysctl.h 2005-01-21 05:55:28.646869344 +0100
@@ -160,7 +160,7 @@ enum
VM_PAGEBUF=17, /* struct: Control pagebuf parameters */
VM_HUGETLB_PAGES=18, /* int: Number of available Huge Pages */
VM_SWAPPINESS=19, /* Tendency to steal mapped memory */
- VM_LOWER_ZONE_PROTECTION=20,/* Amount of protection of lower zones */
+ VM_LOWMEM_RESERVE_RATIO=20,/* reservation ratio for lower memory zones */
VM_MIN_FREE_KBYTES=21, /* Minimum free kilobytes to maintain */
VM_MAX_MAP_COUNT=22, /* int: Maximum number of mmaps/address-space */
VM_LAPTOP_MODE=23, /* vm laptop mode */
--- mainline-2/kernel/sysctl.c.orig 2005-01-15 20:45:00.000000000 +0100
+++ mainline-2/kernel/sysctl.c 2005-01-21 05:55:28.648869040 +0100
@@ -61,7 +61,6 @@ extern int core_uses_pid;
extern char core_pattern[];
extern int cad_pid;
extern int pid_max;
-extern int sysctl_lower_zone_protection;
extern int min_free_kbytes;
extern int printk_ratelimit_jiffies;
extern int printk_ratelimit_burst;
@@ -745,14 +744,13 @@ static ctl_table vm_table[] = {
},
#endif
{
- .ctl_name = VM_LOWER_ZONE_PROTECTION,
- .procname = "lower_zone_protection",
- .data = &sysctl_lower_zone_protection,
- .maxlen = sizeof(sysctl_lower_zone_protection),
+ .ctl_name = VM_LOWMEM_RESERVE_RATIO,
+ .procname = "lowmem_reserve_ratio",
+ .data = &sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio,
+ .maxlen = sizeof(sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio),
.mode = 0644,
- .proc_handler = &lower_zone_protection_sysctl_handler,
+ .proc_handler = &lowmem_reserve_ratio_sysctl_handler,
.strategy = &sysctl_intvec,
- .extra1 = &zero,
},
{
.ctl_name = VM_MIN_FREE_KBYTES,
--- mainline-2/mm/page_alloc.c.orig 2005-01-15 20:45:00.000000000 +0100
+++ mainline-2/mm/page_alloc.c 2005-01-21 05:58:53.338751448 +0100
@@ -44,7 +44,15 @@ struct pglist_data *pgdat_list;
unsigned long totalram_pages;
unsigned long totalhigh_pages;
long nr_swap_pages;
-int sysctl_lower_zone_protection = 0;
+/*
+ * results with 256, 32 in the lowmem_reserve sysctl:
+ * 1G machine -> (16M dma, 800M-16M normal, 1G-800M high)
+ * 1G machine -> (16M dma, 784M normal, 224M high)
+ * NORMAL allocation will leave 784M/256 of ram reserved in the ZONE_DMA
+ * HIGHMEM allocation will leave 224M/32 of ram reserved in ZONE_NORMAL
+ * HIGHMEM allocation will (224M+784M)/256 of ram reserved in ZONE_DMA
+ */
+int sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio[MAX_NR_ZONES-1] = { 256, 32 };

EXPORT_SYMBOL(totalram_pages);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nr_swap_pages);
@@ -654,7 +662,7 @@ buffered_rmqueue(struct zone *zone, int
* of the allocation.
*/
int zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, int order, unsigned long mark,
- int alloc_type, int can_try_harder, int gfp_high)
+ int classzone_idx, int can_try_harder, int gfp_high)
{
/* free_pages my go negative - that's OK */
long min = mark, free_pages = z->free_pages - (1 << order) + 1;
@@ -665,7 +673,7 @@ int zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, in
if (can_try_harder)
min -= min / 4;

- if (free_pages <= min + z->protection[alloc_type])
+ if (free_pages <= min + z->lowmem_reserve[classzone_idx])
return 0;
for (o = 0; o < order; o++) {
/* At the next order, this order's pages become unavailable */
@@ -682,19 +690,6 @@ int zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, in

/*
* This is the 'heart' of the zoned buddy allocator.
- *
- * Herein lies the mysterious "incremental min". That's the
- *
- * local_low = z->pages_low;
- * min += local_low;
- *
- * thing. The intent here is to provide additional protection to low zones for
- * allocation requests which _could_ use higher zones. So a GFP_HIGHMEM
- * request is not allowed to dip as deeply into the normal zone as a GFP_KERNEL
- * request. This preserves additional space in those lower zones for requests
- * which really do need memory from those zones. It means that on a decent
- * sized machine, GFP_HIGHMEM and GFP_KERNEL requests basically leave the DMA
- * zone untouched.
*/
struct page * fastcall
__alloc_pages(unsigned int gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
@@ -706,7 +701,7 @@ __alloc_pages(unsigned int gfp_mask, uns
struct reclaim_state reclaim_state;
struct task_struct *p = current;
int i;
- int alloc_type;
+ int classzone_idx;
int do_retry;
int can_try_harder;

@@ -726,13 +721,13 @@ __alloc_pages(unsigned int gfp_mask, uns
return NULL;
}

- alloc_type = zone_idx(zones[0]);
+ classzone_idx = zone_idx(zones[0]);

/* Go through the zonelist once, looking for a zone with enough free */
for (i = 0; (z = zones[i]) != NULL; i++) {

if (!zone_watermark_ok(z, order, z->pages_low,
- alloc_type, 0, 0))
+ classzone_idx, 0, 0))
continue;

page = buffered_rmqueue(z, order, gfp_mask);
@@ -749,8 +744,8 @@ __alloc_pages(unsigned int gfp_mask, uns
*/
for (i = 0; (z = zones[i]) != NULL; i++) {
if (!zone_watermark_ok(z, order, z->pages_min,
- alloc_type, can_try_harder,
- gfp_mask & __GFP_HIGH))
+ classzone_idx, can_try_harder,
+ gfp_mask & __GFP_HIGH))
continue;

page = buffered_rmqueue(z, order, gfp_mask);
@@ -787,8 +782,8 @@ rebalance:
/* go through the zonelist yet one more time */
for (i = 0; (z = zones[i]) != NULL; i++) {
if (!zone_watermark_ok(z, order, z->pages_min,
- alloc_type, can_try_harder,
- gfp_mask & __GFP_HIGH))
+ classzone_idx, can_try_harder,
+ gfp_mask & __GFP_HIGH))
continue;

page = buffered_rmqueue(z, order, gfp_mask);
@@ -1198,9 +1193,9 @@ void show_free_areas(void)
zone->pages_scanned,
(zone->all_unreclaimable ? "yes" : "no")
);
- printk("protections[]:");
+ printk("lowmem_reserve[]:");
for (i = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++)
- printk(" %lu", zone->protection[i]);
+ printk(" %lu", zone->lowmem_reserve[i]);
printk("\n");
}

@@ -1872,87 +1867,29 @@ void __init page_alloc_init(void)
hotcpu_notifier(page_alloc_cpu_notify, 0);
}

-static unsigned long higherzone_val(struct zone *z, int max_zone,
- int alloc_type)
-{
- int z_idx = zone_idx(z);
- struct zone *higherzone;
- unsigned long pages;
-
- /* there is no higher zone to get a contribution from */
- if (z_idx == MAX_NR_ZONES-1)
- return 0;
-
- higherzone = &z->zone_pgdat->node_zones[z_idx+1];
-
- /* We always start with the higher zone's protection value */
- pages = higherzone->protection[alloc_type];
-
- /*
- * We get a lower-zone-protection contribution only if there are
- * pages in the higher zone and if we're not the highest zone
- * in the current zonelist. e.g., never happens for GFP_DMA. Happens
- * only for ZONE_DMA in a GFP_KERNEL allocation and happens for ZONE_DMA
- * and ZONE_NORMAL for a GFP_HIGHMEM allocation.
- */
- if (higherzone->present_pages && z_idx < alloc_type)
- pages += higherzone->pages_low * sysctl_lower_zone_protection;
-
- return pages;
-}
-
/*
- * setup_per_zone_protection - called whenver min_free_kbytes or
- * sysctl_lower_zone_protection changes. Ensures that each zone
- * has a correct pages_protected value, so an adequate number of
+ * setup_per_zone_lowmem_reserve - called whenever
+ * sysctl_lower_zone_reserve_ratio changes. Ensures that each zone
+ * has a correct pages reserved value, so an adequate number of
* pages are left in the zone after a successful __alloc_pages().
- *
- * This algorithm is way confusing. I tries to keep the same behavior
- * as we had with the incremental min iterative algorithm.
*/
-static void setup_per_zone_protection(void)
+static void setup_per_zone_lowmem_reserve(void)
{
struct pglist_data *pgdat;
- struct zone *zones, *zone;
- int max_zone;
- int i, j;
+ int j, idx;

for_each_pgdat(pgdat) {
- zones = pgdat->node_zones;
+ for (j = 0; j < MAX_NR_ZONES; j++) {
+ struct zone * zone = pgdat->node_zones + j;
+ unsigned long present_pages = zone->present_pages;

- for (i = 0, max_zone = 0; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++)
- if (zones[i].present_pages)
- max_zone = i;
+ zone->lowmem_reserve[j] = 0;

- /*
- * For each of the different allocation types:
- * GFP_DMA -> GFP_KERNEL -> GFP_HIGHMEM
- */
- for (i = 0; i < GFP_ZONETYPES; i++) {
- /*
- * For each of the zones:
- * ZONE_HIGHMEM -> ZONE_NORMAL -> ZONE_DMA
- */
- for (j = MAX_NR_ZONES-1; j >= 0; j--) {
- zone = &zones[j];
+ for (idx = j-1; idx >= 0; idx--) {
+ struct zone * lower_zone = pgdat->node_zones + idx;

- /*
- * We never protect zones that don't have memory
- * in them (j>max_zone) or zones that aren't in
- * the zonelists for a certain type of
- * allocation (j>=i). We have to assign these
- * to zero because the lower zones take
- * contributions from the higher zones.
- */
- if (j > max_zone || j >= i) {
- zone->protection[i] = 0;
- continue;
- }
- /*
- * The contribution of the next higher zone
- */
- zone->protection[i] = higherzone_val(zone,
- max_zone, i);
+ lower_zone->lowmem_reserve[j] = present_pages / sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio[idx];
+ present_pages += lower_zone->present_pages;
}
}
}
@@ -2047,7 +1984,7 @@ static int __init init_per_zone_pages_mi
if (min_free_kbytes > 65536)
min_free_kbytes = 65536;
setup_per_zone_pages_min();
- setup_per_zone_protection();
+ setup_per_zone_lowmem_reserve();
return 0;
}
module_init(init_per_zone_pages_min)
@@ -2062,20 +1999,23 @@ int min_free_kbytes_sysctl_handler(ctl_t
{
proc_dointvec(table, write, file, buffer, length, ppos);
setup_per_zone_pages_min();
- setup_per_zone_protection();
return 0;
}

/*
- * lower_zone_protection_sysctl_handler - just a wrapper around
- * proc_dointvec() so that we can call setup_per_zone_protection()
- * whenever sysctl_lower_zone_protection changes.
+ * lowmem_reserve_ratio_sysctl_handler - just a wrapper around
+ * proc_dointvec() so that we can call setup_per_zone_lowmem_reserve()
+ * whenever sysctl_lowmem_reserve_ratio changes.
+ *
+ * The reserve ratio obviously has absolutely no relation with the
+ * pages_min watermarks. The lowmem reserve ratio can only make sense
+ * if in function of the boot time zone sizes.
*/
-int lower_zone_protection_sysctl_handler(ctl_table *table, int write,
+int lowmem_reserve_ratio_sysctl_handler(ctl_table *table, int write,
struct file *file, void __user *buffer, size_t *length, loff_t *ppos)
{
proc_dointvec_minmax(table, write, file, buffer, length, ppos);
- setup_per_zone_protection();
+ setup_per_zone_lowmem_reserve();
return 0;
}

-
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