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SubjectRe: [PATCH/RFC] exposing ACPI objects in sysfs
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On Tue, 2004-09-21 at 14:24 +0200, Pavel Machek wrote:
> Hi!
>
> > I've lost track of how many of these patches I've done, but here's
> > the much anticipated next revision ;^) The purpose of this patch is to
> > expose ACPI objects in the already existing namespace in sysfs
> > (/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI). There's a lot of information
>
> Perhaps this needs some description in Documentation/ ?
>

Here's a start. I'll add this to the next revision of the patch, but
for now, I'll send it alone for comment. Thanks,

Alex

--- /dev/null 2004-09-21 08:04:45.000000000 -0600
+++ linux-2.5/Documentation/acpi/acpi_sysfs 2004-09-21 10:41:45.000000000 -0600
@@ -0,0 +1,182 @@
+ The ACPI sysfs object interface
+ ===============================
+
+
+Revision History
+----------------
+2004-09-21: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@hp.com> - Initial revision
+
+
+Overview
+--------
+
+ The ACPI sysfs interface attempts to solve the problem of providing
+an interface to ACPI namespace to user level programs. ACPI objects
+are exposed as files under the /sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/
+directory hierarchy. For example, on an hp rx2600 system, the following
+objects are available:
+
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_OSI
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_OS_
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_REV
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_TZ/THM0/_TMP
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_TZ/THM0/_CRT
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/CPU1/_SUN
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/CPU1/_UID
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/CPU0/_SUN
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/CPU0/_UID
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/_UID
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/_CRS
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/_CID
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/_HID
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/PCI7/_HPP
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/PCI7/_CRS
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/PCI7/_PRT
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/PCI7/_CID
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/PCI7/_HID
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/PCI7/_BBN
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/PCI7/_STA
+/sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_SB/SBA0/PCI7/_UID
+...
+
+User space utilities can search ACPI namespace and call into the acpi_sysfs
+driver to evaluate objects. The interface uses simple write and read
+operations to pass method arguments or commands and return the evaluated
+object value or attributes. Simple objects (those that don't require
+method arguments) can be evaluated by simply reading the file:
+
+# xxd /sys/firmware/acpi/namespace/ACPI/_OS_
+0000000: 0200 0000 1400 0000 1800 0000 0000 0000 ................
+0000010: 0000 0000 0000 0000 4d69 6372 6f73 6f66 ........Microsof
+0000020: 7420 5769 6e64 6f77 7320 4e54 0000 0000 t Windows NT....
+
+Standard ACPI objects are used for return values, allowing the interface
+to easily return ACPI packages, buffers, strings, etc...
+
+Todo: This interface really needs a libacpi and lsacpi type tools to
+ make it more readily available.
+
+Theory of Operation
+-------------------
+
+ The ACPI sysfs interface provides a per-open file backing store for
+ACPI object files. Reads and writes to the file are consistent only
+within an open/close session (ie. closing the file clears all read and
+write data). Object evaluation and special command processing only
+occurs when the object file is read. This allows commands and arguments
+to be built up with multiple writes, but nothing occurs until the file
+is read.
+
+ Reading the object file at offset zero re-evaluates the object or
+command and clears current read/write buffers. Reading from a non-zero
+offset returns the requested section of the current read buffer without
+re-evaluating the object or modifying the write buffer (should we clear
+the write buffer here?).
+
+ The ACPI sysfs interface uses standard ACPI data structures with the
+exception that all pointers in the structure are replaced by offsets
+into the read/write buffer. Using the _OS_ object return value as an
+example, evaluating an object always returns a union acpi_object struct:
+
+union acpi_object
+{
+ acpi_object_type type; /* See definition of acpi_ns_type for values */
+ struct
+ {
+ acpi_object_type type;
+ acpi_integer value; /* The actual number */
+ } integer;
+
+ struct
+ {
+ acpi_object_type type;
+ u32 length;/* # of bytes in string, excluding trailing null */
+ char *pointer; /* points to the string value */
+ } string;
+...
+
+
+ Evaluating the first 4 bytes of the return buffer shows this is an
+ACPI_TYPE_STRING structure. Using the string entry from the union, the
+next 4 bytes provides the length of the string (0x14 = 20 bytes). Finally,
+this data type uses a pointer to a buffer to provide the actual data. As
+seen in the output, the 8 byte pointer value (ia64 system) has been replaced
+by a buffer offset. Therefore, the 20 byte char array starts at offset
+0x18 in the buffer.
+
+ The return value for commands is dependent on the command issued.
+The version command returns an acpi_object to facilitate synchronizing
+the size of a union acpi_object between kernel and user space. The type
+commands simple return an acpi_object_type value. Current available
+commands include:
+
+/* Get version, returned in union acpi_object (integer) struct */
+#define VERSION 0x0
+/* Get the type of the object (Integer, String, Method, etc...) */
+#define GET_TYPE 0x1
+/* Get the type of the parent to the object (Device, Processor, etc...) */
+#define GET_PTYPE 0x2
+
+ Commands are issued by writing the following data structure to the ACPI
+object file:
+
+struct special_cmd {
+ u32 magic;
+ unsigned int cmd;
+ char *args;
+};
+
+The "magic" value is used to distinguish commands from method arguments
+and should always be set to ACPI_UINT32_MAX. The cmd value is one of the
+operations to preform, such as GET_TYPE. The args value is currently
+unused, but allows for data to be passed in for future commands.
+
+ Method arguments are always written to the ACPI object file as struct
+acpi_object_list:
+
+struct acpi_object_list
+{
+ u32 count;
+ union acpi_object *pointer;
+};
+
+Much like the return data, the pointer is replaced by an offset into the
+buffer (except this time, it's the caller's responsibility to make this
+conversion). For example, If we wanted to take the string acpi_object
+above and convert it into an acpi_object_list, we'd end up with this:
+
+0000000: 0100 0000 0000 0000 1000 0000 0000 0000 ................
+0000010: 0200 0000 1400 0000 2800 0000 0000 0000 ................
+0000020: 0000 0000 0000 0000 4d69 6372 6f73 6f66 ........Microsof
+0000030: 7420 5769 6e64 6f77 7320 4e54 0000 0000 t Windows NT....
+
+Note that since this structure is for a 64 bit system, the pointer
+will be naturally aligned on a 8 byte boundary. If we wanted to pass
+two arguments to the method, a string and a buffer, the structure we need
+to write would look like this:
+
+00000000 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 18 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................
+00000010 48 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 00 00 00 14 00 00 00 H...............
+00000020 30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0...............
+00000030 4D 69 63 72 6F 73 6F 66 74 20 57 69 6E 64 6F 77 Microsoft Window
+00000040 73 20 4E 54 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 s NT............
+00000050 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................
+
+ This structure shows 2 arguments, the first starts at offset 0x18. The
+second argument starts at offset 0x48. Using the same procedure above,
+the second argument is an ACPI_TYPE_INTEGER with a value of 0x0. In this
+example, the string data come before the second argument, but it could
+just as easily be at the end of the buffer. Maintaining proper data
+alignment is recommended.
+
+ On the kernel side, offsets are range checked to ensure they fall within
+the buffer before being converted to kernel pointers for the ACPI interpreter.
+
+ NOTE: ACPI methods have a purpose. Randomly calling methods without
+knowing their side-effects will undoubtedly cause problems. ACPI objects
+like _HID, _CID, _ADR, _SUN, _UID, _STA, _BBN should always be safe to
+evaluate. These simply return data about the object. Methods like
+_ON_, _OFF_, _S5_, etc... are meant to cause a change in the system and
+can cause problems. The ACPI sysfs module makes an attempt to hide some
+of the more dangerous interfaces, but it not fool-proof. DO NOT randomly
+read files in the ACPI namespace unless you know what they do.

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