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    SubjectRe: Proposal for a userspace "architecture portability" library
    On Sun, 5 Dec 2004 11:53:43 +1100, Paul Mackerras <> wrote:

    > Some of our kernel headers implement generally useful abstractions
    > across all of the architectures we support. I would like to make an
    > "architecture portability" library, based on the kernel headers but as
    > a separate project from the kernel, and intended for use in userspace.
    > The headers that I want to base this on are:
    > atomic.h
    > bitops.h
    > byteorder.h
    > rwsem.h
    > semaphore.h
    > spinlock.h
    > system.h (for mb et al., xchg, cmpxchg)
    > unaligned.h

    The atomics would be a good idea especially if they were cleaned up a
    A list of functions that would be useful

    atomic_set -- atomically fetches a value
    atomic_read -- atomically stores a value

    These two exist but one should be renamed for consistancy, atomic_write or

    fetch_and_add -- atomically add to an integer and return result.
    fetch_and_increment -- atomically increment by one and return result
    fetch_and_decrement -- atomically decrement by one and return result.

    fetch_and_add could replace the numerous atomic_(add,sub,inc,dec)_xxxx
    which either don't
    test for the right condition or don't test the result at all. Also, get
    rid of atomic_t. It doesn't
    appear to be useful and is a pain to work around. We probably need a way
    to define what
    operands are atomic but that's not the way to do it. The fetch and
    aren't really needed but would allow optimization for some platforms.

    Generic interlocked instructions such as compare and swap. I prefer IBM
    style which returns
    a sucessful/not successful w/ update of compare value over the Microsoft
    style which returns
    the old value. For hardware with LL/SC, compare and swap can be
    simulated. Also
    double wide compare and swap. Not all platforms have it but it's
    imporatant enough to
    provide even if you have to simulate it on the ones that don't. Also an
    xchg/swap atomic
    op would be a nice optimization for those platforms that have it. You
    don't use it
    a lot but when you do it's a nice optimization over simulating it using
    compare and swap.

    Memory barriers also. At a minimum, rmb(), wmb(), and mb(). If you're
    ambitious finer
    granularity membars such as those on sparc. You can use stronger membars
    on architectures
    that don't have that granularity. Also the dependent load barrier
    This would be used by many lock-free algorithms, not just RCU, which
    itself can have
    multiple implementations for preemptive user threads. I've done 3
    implementations of
    RCU for preemtive user threads so far.

    Read/write locks and semaphores already exist in userspace. Spinlocks I
    would avoid as they can have rather significant negative performance
    impact. You can
    usually get what you want with lock-free algorithms without the negative
    that spin-locks have.

    These are fairly advanced interfaces and you really need to know what
    you're doing.
    While defining these interfaces could be considered dangerous by enabling
    the the
    unqualified to use them, not providing them won't stop them from doing
    and stupid things which they'll do anyway. With official headers, you
    could provide
    man pages and header comments with appropiate warnings and pointers to
    A common error is the incorrect impementation of DCL (double checked
    which has its own DangerWillRobisonDanger web page here
    which has had little effect in dissuading people from using it. If you
    had an official
    load w/ read_barrier_depends() macro similar to RCU's, it would be hard
    for people
    to ignore the fact of its existence when informed of such. It'd be

    And these interfaces will help immensly those of us working with lock-free
    who don't have the time or resources to implement yet another atomic
    operation on
    every single platform.

    Joe Seigh

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