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    SubjectRe: Transparent compression in the FS
    Andrea Arcangeli wrote:
    > Hi Jeff,
    > On Wed, Oct 15, 2003 at 11:13:27AM -0400, Jeff Garzik wrote:
    >>Josh and others should take a look at Plan9's venti file storage method
    >>-- archival storage is a series of unordered blocks, all of which are
    >>indexed by the sha1 hash of their contents. This magically coalesces
    >>all duplicate blocks by its very nature, including the loooooong runs of
    >>zeroes that you'll find in many filesystems. I bet savings on "all
    >>bytes in this block are zero" are worth a bunch right there.
    > I had a few ideas on the above.
    > if the zero blocks are the problem, there's a tool called zum that nukes
    > them and replaces them with holes. I use it sometime, example:
    > andrea@velociraptor:~> dd if=/dev/zero of=zero bs=1M count=100
    > 100+0 records in
    > 100+0 records out
    > andrea@velociraptor:~> ls -ls zero
    > 102504 -rw-r--r-- 1 andrea andrea 104857600 2003-10-16 18:24 zero
    > andrea@velociraptor:~> ~/bin/i686/zum zero
    > zero [820032K] [1 link]
    > andrea@velociraptor:~> ls -ls zero
    > 0 -rw-r--r-- 1 andrea andrea 104857600 2003-10-16 18:24 zero
    > andrea@velociraptor:~>


    > the hash to the data is interesting, but 1) you lose the zerocopy
    > behaviour for the I/O, it's like doing a checksum for all the data going to
    > disk that you normally would never do (except for the tiny files in reiserfs
    > with tail packing enabled, but that's not bulk I/O), 2) I wonder how much data
    > is really duplicate besides the "zero" holes trivially fixable in userspace
    > (modulo bzImage or similar where I'm unsure if the fs code in the bootloader
    > can handle holes ;).

    FWIW archival storage doesn't really care... Since all data written to
    disk is hashed with SHA1 (sha1 hash == block's unique id), you gain (a)
    duplicate block coalescing and (b) _real_ data integrity guaranteed, but
    OTOH, you lose performance and possibly lose zero-copy.

    I _really_ like the checksum aspect of Plan9's archival storage (venti).

    As Andre H and Larry McVoy love to point out, data isn't _really_ secure
    until it's been checksummed, and that checksum data is verified on
    reads. LM has an anecdote (doesn't he always? <g>) about how BitKeeper
    -- which checksums its data inside the app -- has found data-corrupting
    kernel bugs, in days long past.


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