[lkml]   [2003]   [Oct]   [13]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
Messages in this thread
    Subject[RFC] cpuset proposal


    We'd like to introduce our 'CPUSET' Linux feature to the world. It has
    been discussed a few weeks ago and received some positive feedback on
    linux-ia64 and LSE. Since then we have ported it to i386 (as suggested by
    Stephen Hemminger) and would appreciate to receive comments from a wider

    Any opinion, comment, rant, flame, mark of interest or despise is more
    than welcome.

    For a more complete description or source code see

    We'd be also curious about whether a feature of this kind or addressing
    the same issue would be likely to make it into a future version of the


    Simon & Sylvain.

    What are CPUSETS ?

    CPUSETs are lightweight objects in the linux kernel that enable users to
    partition their multiprocessor machine by creating execution areas. This
    has been somewhat inspired by the pset or cpumemset patches existing for
    Linux 2.4. A virtualization layer has been added so it becomes possible to
    split a machine in terms of CPUs.

    The main motivation of this patch is to give the linux kernel full
    administration capabilities concerning CPUs. CPUSETs are strong jails, and
    a process running inside this predefined area won't be able to run on
    other processors than those given to him. Some domains in which it can be
    useful :

    * Web Servers running multiple instances of the same web application.
    * Servers running different applications (for instance, a web server
    and a database).
    * HPC applications, especially in NUMA machines.

    CPUSETS allow to:

    1. create sets of CPUs on the system, and bind applications to them
    2. translate the masks of CPUs given to sched_setaffinity() so they
    stay inside the set of CPUs. With this mechanism, processors are
    virtualized, for the use of sched_setaffinity() and /proc information.
    Thus, any former application using this syscall to bind processes to
    processors will work with virtual CPUs without any change.
    3. provide a way to create sets of cpus *inside* a set of cpus : hence
    a system administrator can partition a system among users, and users can
    partition their partition among their applications.
    4. Change on the fly the execution area of a whole set of processes (to
    give more resources to a critical application, for example).

    These features have been implemented as a kernel patch for Linux 2.6 and a
    suite of userland tools.

    Typical CPUSET Usage:

    * CPU-bound applications : Many applications (as it is often the case
    for HPC apps) use to have a "one process on one processor" policy. They
    can use sched_setaffinity() to do so, but what if we have to run several
    such apps at the same time ? One can do this by creating a cpuset for each
    * Web Serving : A server containing a web server (apache for instance)
    and a database (MySQL, Oracle) may want to have one part of the machine
    dedicated for each task. A cpuset can be created for each task. If the
    server is used to run two instances of this web-system, cpusets can be
    used to split the system in two, and then in each partition create one
    area for the web server and one area for the database.
    * User administration : an administrator may give fixed numbers of
    CPUs to some classes of users and leave the rest to other users, for
    instance. He can do so by creating cpusets and assigning them to users.
    * Critical applications : processors inside strict areas may not be
    used by other areas. Thus, a critical application (real time ...) may be
    run inside an area and be sure that other processes won't use its CPU.
    This implies that others applications won't be able to lower its
    reactivity. This can be done by creating a cpuset for the critical
    application, and another for all the other tasks.

    * In the future, other features such as associating a memory allocation
    policy (such as local node, or round robin) to a set of cpus might be

    * We are looking forward to the inclusion of the cpuset feature in a
    more visible project...
    To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-kernel" in
    the body of a message to
    More majordomo info at
    Please read the FAQ at

     \ /
      Last update: 2005-03-22 13:49    [W:0.022 / U:50.200 seconds]
    ©2003-2017 Jasper Spaans. hosted at Digital OceanAdvertise on this site