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Subject[PATCH] OOM handling
Martin Dalecki wrote:
>
> I have a constructive proposal:
>
> It would make much sense to make the oom killer
> leave not just root processes alone but processes belonging to a UID
> lower
> then a certain value as well (500). This would be:
>
> 1. Easly managable by the admin. Just let oracle/www and analogous users
> have a UID lower then let's say 500.
>
> 2. In full compliance with the port trick done by TCP/IP (ports < 1024
> vers other)
>
> 3. It wouldn't need any addition of new interface (no jebanoje gawno in
> /proc in addition()
>
> 4. Really simple to implement/document understand.
>
> 5. Be the same way as Solaris does similiar things.
>
> ...
>
> Damn: I will let my chess club alone toady and will just code it down
> NOW.
>
> Spec:
>
> 1. Processes with a UID < 100 are immune to OOM killers.
> 2. Processes with a UID >= 100 && < 500 are hard for the OOM killer to
> take on.
> 3. Processes with a UID >= 500 are easy targets.
>
> Let me introduce a new terminology in full analogy to "fire walls"
> routers and therabouts:
>
> Processes of category 1. are called captains (oficerzy)
> Processes of category 2. are called corporals (porucznicy)
> Processes of category 2. are called privates (¿o³nierze)

OK I just did it. as I already told I have "stress tested it" by
installing the Orcale insternet application server suide
on a hoplessly underequipped box ("only" 128MByte RMA).
The assorted patch is attached.

Since I'm one day late up to my promise to provide this
patch it's actually fascinating that already 4 people (in esp. not
newbees requesting a new /proc entry for everything)
for reassurance that I will indeed implement it... Well
this kind of "high" and "eager" feadback seems for me to indicate
that there is very serious desire for it. And then of course I
just have to ask our people working with DB's here at work as well :-).

Ah... and of course I think this patch can already go directly
into the official kernel. The quality of code should permit
it. I would esp. request Rik van Riel to have a closer look
at it...diff -urN linux/mm/oom_kill.c linux-new/mm/oom_kill.c
--- linux/mm/oom_kill.c Tue Nov 14 19:56:46 2000
+++ linux-new/mm/oom_kill.c Sun Mar 25 17:17:34 2001
@@ -1,18 +1,64 @@
/*
* linux/mm/oom_kill.c
- *
+ *
* Copyright (C) 1998,2000 Rik van Riel
* Thanks go out to Claus Fischer for some serious inspiration and
* for goading me into coding this file...
*
- * The routines in this file are used to kill a process when
- * we're seriously out of memory. This gets called from kswapd()
- * in linux/mm/vmscan.c when we really run out of memory.
- *
- * Since we won't call these routines often (on a well-configured
- * machine) this file will double as a 'coding guide' and a signpost
- * for newbie kernel hackers. It features several pointers to major
- * kernel subsystems and hints as to where to find out what things do.
+ * Sat Mar 24 22:07:15 CET 2001 Marcin Dalecki <dalecki@evision-ventures.com>:
+ *
+ * Replaced the original algorith with something reasonably, predictable
+ * and managable. I will call this "Stalins Eviction".
+ */
+
+/*
+ * The routines in this file are used to kill a process when the system is
+ * entierly out of memmory (both: RAM and swap). This gets called from
+ * kswapd() in linux/mm/vmscan.c when we are in total starvation due to the
+ * fact, that the only thing the system is busy at, is to try to allocate some
+ * physical memmory page, where there are no pages anymore left. In such it
+ * does make perfect sense to kill some offending process, just to make the
+ * system go on and survive.
+ *
+ * IT IS A LAST RESORT!
+ *
+ * ALLERT: In contrast to popular beleve the invention of the mechanism
+ * presented here IS IMPORTANT for system security reasons. It is preventing
+ * one border corner of an easy DNS attack in case the sysadmin didn't take
+ * other measures, which he either overworked or incompetent as he is usually
+ * doesn't.
+ *
+ * Basically the eviction goes on as follows:
+ *
+ * 1. Normal interactive user processes are the first candidates for a shoot.
+ * We consider all users with a UID >= 500 as normal interactive users.
+ *
+ * 2. If there are no processes started by a normal interactive user, we aim
+ * at the processes from nonessential processes (for the "live" of the system
+ * as a whole). We consider users with a UID >= 100 and < 500 as essential
+ * service user.
+ *
+ * 3. If this still isn't the case we start to shut down the system components
+ * peace by peace... (UID < 100).
+ *
+ * In fact the heuristics used to determine, at which of the process classes
+ * to aim first, are a bit more sophisticated, If you wan't those details
+ * please read the code below. It does (hopefully so) speak for itself.
+ *
+ * As an example: If you are running a big Linux box, which is mainly deployed
+ * as an oracle server, but where normal interactive human users can log on as
+ * well, then you should run oracle server with a UID < 500 and >= 100. Then
+ * dumb ass loosers starting 100 netscape and 500 emacs sessions, won't be
+ * able anylonger to kill the essential oracle service.
+ *
+ * The introduction of this additional UID semantics shouldn't affect any
+ * present systems. (Read: It won't make anything worser in comparision to
+ * previous versions of the Linux kernel.) However every single distributor of
+ * "enterprise grade" applications for Linux SHOULD take a note on this.
+ *
+ * regards:
+ *
+ * Marcin Dalecki
*/

#include <linux/mm.h>
@@ -23,125 +69,141 @@

/* #define DEBUG */

-/**
- * int_sqrt - oom_kill.c internal function, rough approximation to sqrt
- * @x: integer of which to calculate the sqrt
- *
- * A very rough approximation to the sqrt() function.
- */
-static unsigned int int_sqrt(unsigned int x)
-{
- unsigned int out = x;
- while (x & ~(unsigned int)1) x >>=2, out >>=1;
- if (x) out -= out >> 2;
- return (out ? out : 1);
-}
-
-/**
- * oom_badness - calculate a numeric value for how bad this task has been
- * @p: task struct of which task we should calculate
- *
- * The formula used is relatively simple and documented inline in the
- * function. The main rationale is that we want to select a good task
- * to kill when we run out of memory.
- *
- * Good in this context means that:
- * 1) we lose the minimum amount of work done
- * 2) we recover a large amount of memory
- * 3) we don't kill anything innocent of eating tons of memory
- * 4) we want to kill the minimum amount of processes (one)
- * 5) we try to kill the process the user expects us to kill, this
- * algorithm has been meticulously tuned to meet the priniciple
- * of least surprise ... (be careful when you change it)
- */
+#define CPU_FACTOR 32
+#define AGE_FACTOR 256

-static int badness(struct task_struct *p)
+enum uid_class {
+ normal,
+ service,
+ system,
+ immune
+};
+
+static int determine_uid_class(struct task_struct *p)
{
- int points, cpu_time, run_time;
+ int uid;
+ int uid_class = system;

- if (!p->mm)
- return 0;
- /*
- * The memory size of the process is the basis for the badness.
+ /* This makes processes started by for example suexec be better killing
+ * candidates then root's processes themself.
*/
- points = p->mm->total_vm;
+ uid = p->uid;
+ if (p->euid > p->uid)
+ uid = p->euid;

- /*
- * CPU time is in seconds and run time is in minutes. There is no
- * particular reason for this other than that it turned out to work
- * very well in practice. This is not safe against jiffie wraps
- * but we don't care _that_ much...
+ /* This is implementing the intendid semantics of different user id
+ * value ranges.
*/
- cpu_time = (p->times.tms_utime + p->times.tms_stime) >> (SHIFT_HZ + 3);
- run_time = (jiffies - p->start_time) >> (SHIFT_HZ + 10);
+ if (uid < 100)
+ uid_class = system;
+ else if (uid < 500)
+ uid_class = service;
+ else
+ uid_class = normal;

- points /= int_sqrt(cpu_time);
- points /= int_sqrt(int_sqrt(run_time));
-
- /*
- * Niced processes are most likely less important, so double
- * their badness points.
- */
- if (p->nice > 0)
- points *= 2;

- /*
- * Superuser processes are usually more important, so we make it
+ /* Superuser processes are usually more important, so we make it
* less likely that we kill those.
*/
- if (cap_t(p->cap_effective) & CAP_TO_MASK(CAP_SYS_ADMIN) ||
- p->uid == 0 || p->euid == 0)
- points /= 4;
+ if (cap_t(p->cap_effective) & CAP_TO_MASK(CAP_SYS_ADMIN))
+ uid_class = system;

- /*
- * We don't want to kill a process with direct hardware access.
+ /* We don't want to kill a process with direct hardware access.
* Not only could that mess up the hardware, but usually users
* tend to only have this flag set on applications they think
* of as important.
*/
if (cap_t(p->cap_effective) & CAP_TO_MASK(CAP_SYS_RAWIO))
- points /= 4;
-#ifdef DEBUG
- printk(KERN_DEBUG "OOMkill: task %d (%s) got %d points\n",
- p->pid, p->comm, points);
-#endif
- return points;
+ uid_class = system;
+
+ return uid_class;
+}
+
+static int calculate_penalty(struct task_struct *p)
+{
+ int cpu_penalty = 0;
+ int age_penalty = 0;
+
+
+ /* Now we calculate the penalty due to the cpu usage. NOTE: This is
+ * not safe against jiffie wraps.
+ */
+ {
+ int run_time = (jiffies - p->start_time) >> (SHIFT_HZ + 10);
+
+ if (run_time > 0) {
+ cpu_penalty = (CPU_FACTOR * run_time) /
+ ((p->times.tms_utime + p->times.tms_stime) >> (SHIFT_HZ + 3) + run_time);
+ } else
+ cpu_penalty = CPU_FACTOR;
+ }
+
+ /* Let's make older processes more important then newer ones.
+ * This is not safe against jiffie wraps, delibrately so.
+ */
+ if (p->start_time > 0)
+ age_penalty = AGE_FACTOR * p->start_time / jiffies;
+ else
+ age_penalty = 0;
+
+ /* OK this should be sufficient, we don't want to make things more
+ * complicated then needed. In esp. since there is no easy and portable
+ * way to determine the total amount of memmory pages present, we don't
+ * take this into account here.
+ *
+ * Let us worry about more detailed heuristics here, only if there will
+ * be still many people reporting serious problems on linux-kernel.
+ */
+
+ return cpu_penalty + age_penalty;
}

/*
- * Simple selection loop. We chose the process with the highest
- * number of 'points'. We need the locks to make sure that the
- * list of task structs doesn't change while we look the other way.
- *
- * (not docbooked, we don't want this one cluttering up the manual)
+ * Simple selection loop. We chose the process with the highest penalty.
*/
-static struct task_struct * select_bad_process(void)
+static struct task_struct * select_process(void)
{
- int maxpoints = 0;
- struct task_struct *p = NULL;
- struct task_struct *chosen = NULL;
-
- read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
- for_each_task(p) {
- if (p->pid) {
- int points = badness(p);
- if (points > maxpoints) {
- chosen = p;
- maxpoints = points;
+ enum uid_class i;
+ struct task_struct *choice = NULL;
+
+ for (i = normal; i != immune; ++i) {
+ int maxpenalty = 0;
+ struct task_struct *p = NULL;
+
+ /* The locks make sure that the list of task structs doesn't
+ * change while we look at it.
+ */
+
+ read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
+ for_each_task(p) {
+ if (!p->mm)
+ continue;
+
+ if (i != determine_uid_class(p))
+ continue;
+
+ if (p->pid) {
+ int penalty = calculate_penalty(p);
+
+ if (penalty > maxpenalty) {
+ choice = p;
+ maxpenalty = penalty;
+ }
}
}
+ read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
+
+ if (choice != NULL)
+ break;
}
- read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
- return chosen;
+
+ return choice;
}

-/**
- * oom_kill - kill the "best" process when we run out of memory
- *
+/*
* If we run out of memory, we have the choice between either
* killing a random task (bad), letting the system crash (worse)
- * OR try to be smart about which process to kill. Note that we
- * don't have to be perfect here, we just have to be good.
+ * OR try to be smart about which process to kill.
*
* We must be careful though to never send SIGKILL a process with
* CAP_SYS_RAW_IO set, send SIGTERM instead (but it's unlikely that
@@ -149,14 +211,12 @@
*/
void oom_kill(void)
{
+ struct task_struct *p = select_process();

- struct task_struct *p = select_bad_process();
-
- /* Found nothing?!?! Either we hang forever, or we panic. */
if (p == NULL)
panic("Out of memory and no killable processes...\n");

- printk(KERN_ERR "Out of Memory: Killed process %d (%s).\n", p->pid, p->comm);
+ printk(KERN_ERR "Out of memory: killed process %d (%s).\n", p->pid, p->comm);

/*
* We give our sacrificial lamb high priority and access to
@@ -180,14 +240,14 @@
*/
current->policy |= SCHED_YIELD;
schedule();
+
return;
}

-/**
- * out_of_memory - is the system out of memory?
+/** out_of_memory - is the system out of memory?
*
- * Returns 0 if there is still enough memory left,
- * 1 when we are out of memory (otherwise).
+ * Returns 0 if there is still enough memory left, 1 when we are out of memory
+ * (otherwise).
*/
int out_of_memory(void)
{
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