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    These are the occurance counts of the 256 byte values in a big monolithic
    stripped 2.4.0 UP 386 vmlinux. 1/256 is .39% .

    count dec hex octal/ascii % possible meaning

    334170 0 0 [ 0] 17.05% ADD
    63889 255 ff [377] 3.26% 2-byte escape
    63536 36 24 $ 3.24% AND with AL
    52652 139 8b [213] 2.68% MOV
    50862 192 c0 [300] 2.59% 2 byte escape
    44628 131 83 [203] 2.27% 2-byte escape
    42419 137 89 [211] 2.16% MOV
    39630 116 74 t 2.02% JZ
    37832 32 20 1.93% AND
    27742 1 1 [ 1] 1.41% ADD
    22879 4 4 [ 4] 1.16% ADD with AL
    22307 232 e8 [350] 1.13% CALL
    21945 196 c4 [304] 1.11% LES
    21769 68 44 D 1.11% INC eSP
    19960 102 66 f 1.01% other operand size prefix
    19793 8 8 [ 10] 1.01% OR
    19212 15 f [ 17] .98% 2-byte escape
    18234 117 75 u .93% JNZ
    17335 101 65 e .88% GS prefix
    17204 141 8d [215] .87% LEA
    17066 16 10 [ 20] .87% ADC
    16673 133 85 [205] .85% TEST
    14666 12 c [ 14] .74% OR with AL
    13710 115 73 s .69% JNB
    13642 195 c3 [303] .69% RET near
    13293 246 f6 [366] .67% 2-byte escape
    13103 83 53 S .66% PUSH eBX
    12969 100 64 d .66% FS prefix
    12895 104 68 h .65% PUSH immediate
    12820 2 2 [ 2] .65% ADD
    12525 37 25 % .63% AND with eAX
    12412 20 14 [ 24] .63% ADC with AL
    11661 114 72 r .59% JB
    11619 80 50 P .59% PUSH eAX
    10791 128 80 [200] .55% 2-byte escape
    10776 67 43 C .54% INC eBX
    10702 199 c7 [307] .54% MOV
    10640 111 6f o .54% OUTSW/D
    10577 24 18 [ 30] .53% SBB
    10546 124 7c | .53% JL
    10517 105 69 i .53% IMUL
    10256 95 5f _ .52% POP eDI
    10073 84 54 T .51% PUSH eSP
    10055 110 6e n .51% OUTSB
    9965 118 76 v .50% JBE
    9812 97 61 a .50% POPA
    9667 40 28 ( .49% SUB
    9435 49 31 1 .48% XOR
    9410 76 4c L .48% DEC eSP
    9304 108 6c l .47% INSB
    9277 3 3 [ 3] .47% ADD
    8988 64 40 @ .45% INC eAX
    8922 91 5b [ .45% POP eBX
    8903 193 c1 [301] .45% 2 byte escape
    8638 132 84 [204] .44% TEST
    8580 144 90 [220] .43% NOP
    8423 86 56 V .42% PUSH eSI
    8422 48 30 0 .42% XOR
    8417 5 5 [ 5] .42% ADD with eAX
    8267 28 1c [ 34] .42% SBB with AL
    8116 235 eb [353] .41% JNP
    7963 46 2e . .40% CS prefix
    7882 94 5e ^ .40% POP eSI
    7856 99 63 c .40% ARPL
    7723 136 88 [210] .39% MOV
    7667 41 29 ) .39% SUB
    7404 10 a [ 12] .37% OR
    7226 112 70 p .36% JO
    7220 129 81 [201] .36% 2-byte escape
    6818 57 39 9 .34% CMP
    6732 138 8a [212] .34% MOV
    6680 194 c2 [302] .34% RET near with stacked data
    6518 44 2c , .33% SUB with AL
    6509 92 5c \ .33% POP eSP
    6363 184 b8 [270] .32% MOV immediate
    6246 224 e0 [340] .31% LOOPNE
    6139 85 55 U .31% PUSH eBP
    6117 42 2a * .31% SUB
    6001 87 57 W .30% PUSH eDI
    5937 254 fe [376] .30% INC/DEC
    5839 106 6a j .29% PUSH immediate
    5829 7 7 [ 7] .29% POP ES
    5703 182 b6 [266] .29% MOV immediate
    5654 198 c6 [306] .28% MOV
    5553 70 46 F .28% INC eSI
    5327 93 5d ] .27% POP eBP
    5318 60 3c < .27% CMP with AL
    5301 58 3a : .27% CMP
    5281 236 ec [354] .26% IN
    5174 52 34 4 .26% XOR with AL
    5165 120 78 x .26% JS
    5156 9 9 [ 11] .26% OR
    5121 233 e9 [351] .26% JNP
    5014 6 6 [ 6] .25% PUSH ES
    4921 56 38 8 .25% CMP
    4915 66 42 B .25% INC eDX
    4913 65 41 A .25% INC eCX
    4890 69 45 E .24% INC eBP
    4846 13 d [ 15] .24% OR with eAX
    4825 240 f0 [360] .24% LOCK
    4768 248 f8 [370] .24% CLC
    4623 208 d0 [320] .23% 2-byte escape
    4513 109 6d m .23% INSW/D
    4488 82 52 R .22% PUSH eDX
    4459 61 3d = .22% CMP with eAX
    4444 252 fc [374] .22% CLD
    4411 43 2b + .22% SUB
    4335 71 47 G .22% INC eDI
    4235 210 d2 [322] .21% 2-byte escape
    3918 238 ee [356] .19% OUT
    3841 39 27 ' .19% DAA
    3797 21 15 [ 25] .19% ADC with eAX
    3778 250 fa [372] .19% CLI
    3698 103 67 g .18% other address size prefix
    3629 72 48 H .18% DEC eAX
    3612 219 db [333] .18% coprocessor
    3525 38 26 & .17% ES prefix
    3431 50 32 2 .17% XOR
    3349 73 49 I .17% DEC eCX
    3340 33 21 ! .17% AND
    3330 134 86 [206] .16% XCNG
    3257 119 77 w .16% JNBE
    3185 216 d8 [330] .16% coprocessor
    3142 200 c8 [310] .16% ENTER
    3126 247 f7 [367] .15% 2-byte escape
    2980 17 11 [ 21] .15% ADC
    2977 121 79 y .15% JNS
    2963 226 e2 [342] .15% LOOP
    2953 176 b0 [260] .15% MOV immediate
    2930 251 fb [373] .14% STI
    2891 243 f3 [363] .14% REP
    2885 11 b [ 13] .14% OR
    2875 126 7e ~ .14% JLE
    2857 183 b7 [267] .14% MOV immediate
    2856 78 4e N .14% DEC eSI
    2834 98 62 b .14% BOUND
    2812 88 58 X .14% POP eAX
    2740 14 e [ 16] .13% PUSH CS
    2734 18 12 [ 22] .13% ADC
    2725 242 f2 [362] .13% REPNE
    2693 127 7f [177] .13% JNLE
    2692 156 9c [234] .13% PUSHF
    2650 81 51 Q .13% PUSH eCX
    2636 161 a1 [241] .13% MOV
    2618 47 2f / .13% DAS
    2585 25 19 [ 31] .13% SBB
    2563 201 c9 [311] .13% LEAVE
    2537 237 ed [355] .12% IN
    2528 22 16 [ 26] .12% PUSH SS
    2510 249 f9 [371] .12% STC
    2505 107 6b k .12% IMUL
    2485 19 13 [ 23] .12% ADC
    2484 135 87 [207] .12% XCNG
    2467 185 b9 [271] .12% MOV immediate
    2419 140 8c [214] .12% MOV
    2384 45 2d - .12% SUB with eAX
    2372 77 4d M .12% DEC eBP
    2372 51 33 3 .12% XOR
    2341 168 a8 [250] .11% TEST
    2325 62 3e > .11% CS prefix
    2305 253 fd [375] .11% STD
    2283 218 da [332] .11% coprocessor
    2282 202 ca [312] .11% RET far
    2262 148 94 [224] .11% XCHG eSP
    2241 53 35 5 .11% XOR with eAX
    2224 125 7d } .11% JNL
    2197 180 b4 [264] .11% MOV immediate
    2161 130 82 [202] .11%
    2128 26 1a [ 32] .10% SBB
    2122 172 ac [254] .10% LODSB
    2118 197 c5 [305] .10% LDS
    2101 29 1d [ 35] .10% SBB with eAX
    2078 23 17 [ 27] .10% POP SS
    2068 186 ba [272] .10% MOV immediate
    2035 34 22 " .10% AND
    2024 31 1f [ 37] .10% POP DS
    2016 79 4f O .10% DEC eDI
    1994 75 4b K .10% DEC eBX
    1981 188 bc [274] .10% MOV immediate
    1976 239 ef [357] .10% OUT
    1951 244 f4 [364] .09% HLT
    1933 96 60 ` .09% PUSHA
    1918 160 a0 [240] .09% MOV
    1886 35 23 # .09% AND
    1884 187 bb [273] .09% MOV immediate
    1870 54 36 6 .09% SS prefix
    1855 55 37 7 .09% AAA
    1849 234 ea [352] .09% JNP
    1811 190 be [276] .09% MOV immediate
    1797 225 e1 [341] .09% LOOPE
    1788 30 1e [ 36] .09% PUSH DS
    1719 211 d3 [323] .08% 2-byte escape
    1678 228 e4 [344] .08% IN AL
    1636 191 bf [277] .08% MOV immediate
    1621 123 7b { .08% JNP
    1619 230 e6 [346] .08% OUT AL
    1596 27 1b [ 33] .08% SBB
    1590 157 9d [235] .08% POPF
    1582 165 a5 [245] .08% MOVSW/D
    1545 152 98 [230] .07% CBW
    1506 164 a4 [244] .07% MOVSB
    1427 245 f5 [365] .07% CMC
    1406 227 e3 [343] .07% JCXZ
    1333 222 de [336] .06% coprocessor
    1331 209 d1 [321] .06% 2-byte escape
    1311 63 3f ? .06% AAS
    1305 171 ab [253] .06% STOSW/D
    1291 113 71 q .06% JNO
    1271 241 f1 [361] .06%
    1270 74 4a J .06% DEC eDX
    1214 220 dc [334] .06% coprocessor
    1184 122 7a z .06% JP
    1123 189 bd [275] .05% MOV immediate
    1120 142 8e [216] .05% MOV
    1104 212 d4 [324] .05% AAM
    1100 89 59 Y .05% POP eCX
    1098 223 df [337] .05% coprocessor
    1094 163 a3 [243] .05% MOV
    1037 149 95 [225] .05% XCHG eBP
    1006 147 93 [223] .05% XCHG eBX
    994 179 b3 [263] .05% MOV immediate
    972 204 cc [314] .04% INT 3
    966 217 d9 [331] .04% coprocessor
    955 90 5a Z .04% POP eDX
    930 231 e7 [347] .04% OUT eAX
    905 59 3b ; .04% CMP
    875 174 ae [256] .04% SCASB
    874 145 91 [221] .04% XCHG eCX
    857 229 e5 [345] .04% IN eAX
    854 203 cb [313] .04% RET far
    836 214 d6 [326] .04%
    833 181 b5 [265] .04% MOV immediate
    833 143 8f [217] .04% POP
    825 207 cf [317] .04% IRET
    824 146 92 [222] .04% XCHG eDX
    809 206 ce [316] .04% INTO
    806 213 d5 [325] .04% AAD
    777 153 99 [231] .03% CWD
    758 158 9e [236] .03% SAHF
    758 150 96 [226] .03% XCHG eSI
    755 159 9f [237] .03% LAHF
    751 215 d7 [327] .03% XLAT
    748 177 b1 [261] .03% MOV immediate
    735 178 b2 [262] .03% MOV immediate
    735 173 ad [255] .03% LODSW/D
    731 170 aa [252] .03% STOSB
    722 205 cd [315] .03% INT
    684 221 dd [335] .03% coprocessor
    669 155 9b [233] .03% WAIT
    638 151 97 [227] .03% XCHG eDI
    577 166 a6 [246] .02% CMPSB
    567 175 af [257] .02% SCASW/D
    529 154 9a [232] .02% CALL
    515 169 a9 [251] .02% TEST
    513 162 a2 [242] .02% MOV
    386 167 a7 [247] .01% CMPSW/D


    Considering 386 opcodes as "signal" (and throwing out the zeros), decimal
    36 looks like a spike in the noise due to a modR/M byte value. 36 decimal
    is the pmode modR/M byte saying "this instruction uses a memory reference
    with a one-byte literal displacement value." gcc does a lot of that, for
    locals I believe. LES, octal 304, is probably also actually a prevalent
    modR/M value. Otherwise things look mostly as one might expect. ff, 1, 2,
    4 and 8 are probably frequent as literals. The fact that there are more
    4's than 2's meshes with the fact that it's a 4 byte machine as far as
    vmlinux is concerned. There are a lot of 4's affiliated with that locals
    addressing mode. ASCII text in the kernel seems to be a relatively light
    factor. The apparent ratio between CALLs and RETs is about 1.6:1, which is
    the low end of what I expected. I suspect 1.6:1 is representative though.
    That interests me quite a lot. Is the exact ratio known? Has anyone ever
    built a 100% inlined kernel?

    Rick Hohensee
    www.clienux.com
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