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Subject[PATCH] Re: Capabilities
Hi!

> > > > I want setuid root programs not to have all capabilites. cap_bound is
> > > > not the answer since I still want some programs that are started from
> > > > the system initialisation scripts to run with all capabilities.
> > >
> > > Mmm.. I'd like that too.
> >
> > You'll get that when the filesystem support for capabilities goes in.
> >
> > Alternatively, tighten up the bounding set as part of your system
> > initialisation scripts.
>
> Read what the man says, Chris. He wants to be able to decree that
> setuid programs (for example) don't get CNBS without breaking inetd.
>
> I don't believe that this is functionality for its own sake. If
> you think or it as a sysctl which allows you to turn off bits of
> SECURE_NO_SETUID_FIXUP.

Look at http://atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/~pavel/caps/elfcap.html for
stuff like that. You can then select on one-by-one basis which file
should get what permissions.

Pavel

Hi!

This is next try with capabilities; this is version 9 (wow!), this
time against 2.3.3. It includes updated documentation. Please notice
that it is possible to add elf note to existing executable (software
for doing it is present at
http://atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/~pavel/elfcap.html), and enhancing
security of your system could be as easy as running one script.

Please roll in,
Pavel


--- clean//include/linux/elf.h Thu Jun 25 17:38:14 1998
+++ linux/include/linux/elf.h Tue May 18 22:34:21 1999
@@ -496,6 +496,27 @@
Elf32_Word n_type; /* Content type */
} Elf64_Nhdr;

+/* Capabilities support
+ */
+struct elf_capabilities {
+ __u32 signature;
+ __u32 version; /* Currently 0; this is so that you can append on the end painlessly */
+ __u32 flags;
+#define ECF_MAKE_EUID_UID 1
+#define ECF_MAKE_EUID_XUID 2
+ __u32 xuid; /* We want our set 128bit for future expansion */
+ __u32 effective, effective1, effective2, effective3;
+ __u32 permitted, permitted1, permitted2, permitted3;
+ __u32 inheritable, inheritable1, inheritable2, inheritable3;
+ __u32 known, known1, known2, known3;
+};
+
+struct elf_capabilities_note {
+ Elf32_Nhdr nhdr;
+ __u32 note_signature; /* == "CAPS" */
+ struct elf_capabilities cap;
+};
+
#if ELF_CLASS == ELFCLASS32

extern Elf32_Dyn _DYNAMIC [];
--- clean//fs/binfmt_elf.c Thu May 13 22:41:36 1999
+++ linux/fs/binfmt_elf.c Thu May 13 22:32:54 1999
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
* Tools".
*
* Copyright 1993, 1994: Eric Youngdale (ericy@cais.com).
+ * Capabilities copyright 1999 Pavel Machek (pavel@ucw.cz).
*/

#include <linux/module.h>
@@ -387,6 +388,26 @@
return elf_entry;
}

+static void
+restrict( struct linux_binprm * bprm, struct elf_capabilities *cap )
+{
+ if (cap->signature != 0xca5ab1e)
+ return;
+
+ /* I do not check versions... That is because current version
+ is 0 and I expect all changes to be backward - compabtible */
+ if (cap->flags & ECF_MAKE_EUID_UID) /* You may want to loose owner's uid */
+ bprm->e_uid = current->uid;
+ if ((!bprm->e_uid) && (cap->flags & ECF_MAKE_EUID_XUID))
+ bprm->e_uid = cap->xuid; /* We only honour random uid changes for root */
+ cap_mask( bprm->cap_effective, cap->effective );
+ cap_mask( bprm->cap_permitted, cap->permitted );
+ cap_mask( bprm->cap_inheritable, cap->inheritable );
+
+ printk( KERN_DEBUG "Now: uid = %d, effective = %x, permitted = %x, inheritable = %x\n", bprm->e_uid, bprm->cap_effective, bprm->cap_permitted, bprm->cap_inheritable );
+}
+
+
/*
* These are the functions used to load ELF style executables and shared
* libraries. There is no binary dependent code anywhere else.
@@ -396,6 +417,7 @@
#define INTERPRETER_AOUT 1
#define INTERPRETER_ELF 2

+#define roundup(x, y) ((((x)+((y)-1))/(y))*(y))

static inline int
do_load_elf_binary(struct linux_binprm * bprm, struct pt_regs * regs)
@@ -473,6 +498,22 @@
end_data = 0;

for (i = 0; i < elf_ex.e_phnum; i++) {
+ if (elf_ppnt->p_type == PT_NOTE) {
+ struct elf_capabilities_note note;
+ int offset = elf_ppnt->p_offset;
+ int maxoffset = offset + elf_ppnt->p_filesz;
+
+ while (offset <= (maxoffset - sizeof(note))) {
+ int retval;
+ retval = read_exec(bprm->dentry, offset, (void *) &note,
+ sizeof(note), 1);
+ if (retval != sizeof(note))
+ goto skip;
+ if (note.note_signature == be32_to_cpu(0x43415053)) /* "CAPS" */
+ restrict(bprm, &note.cap);
+ offset += sizeof(Elf32_Nhdr) + roundup(note.nhdr.n_namesz, 4) + roundup(note.nhdr.n_descsz, 4);
+ }
+ }
if (elf_ppnt->p_type == PT_INTERP) {
retval = -EINVAL;
if (elf_interpreter)
@@ -533,6 +574,7 @@
interp_ex = *((struct exec *) bprm->buf);
interp_elf_ex = *((struct elfhdr *) bprm->buf);
}
+ skip:
elf_ppnt++;
}

--- /dev/null Tue Jul 21 02:45:36 1998
+++ linux/Documentation/capabilities.txt Tue May 18 23:00:37 1999
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+Elf capabilities hack
+
+ From now on, there's support for capabilities in elf executable. Elf
+ executable now may contain "capabilities header", telling which
+ capabilities should be dropped on exec. This can not hurt: lowering
+ capabilities is not priviledged operation, and executable could do it
+ itself at beggining of main.
+
+ Doing it in exec() time has certain advantages, through: you can
+ easily look and what capabilities are in use by what program and you
+ can set capabilities for existing executables without need to
+ recompile. (It is hard to create tool which insers elfcap header into
+ elf file. But it has been done. Inserting code to drop capabilities on
+ the beggining of main would be nightmare.)
+
+ Notice that this system is very nice, but as described has limited
+ use. It only lowers capabilities, and raising capabilities is what
+ causes problems. (50% of security holes in unix are related to setuid0
+ programs). But wait: elfcap can easily be used to limit damage done by
+ setuid0 programs. It needs only little trick: ability to set euid back
+ to ruid. By setuid0, process gets all capabilities, and elfcap is free
+ to drop that capabilities it does not want.
+
+ So, along with existing setuid mechanism, this hack can be used to
+ grant subset of capabilities to executables. For example currently
+ ping has to be setuid0. With elfcap, ping still will be setuid0, but
+ most of its capabilities (and its euid) will be dropped at exec()
+ time, so breaking into ping will allow attacker to generate arbitrary
+ packets to network, but nothing more.
+
+ Summary of what can elfcap do:
+ * mask inheritable, permitted and effective sets by arbitrary mask
+ * set euid back to ruid (effectivelly undoing result of setuid bit)
+ * set euid to arbitrary value if euid==0 (don't tell anyone, that's
+ really dirty piece of patch and may be dropped)
+
+ For more info & utility programs, look at
+ http://atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/~pavel/elfcap.html.
+
+Bad idea
+
+ I should empatize that it is bad idea to give suid0 to any program
+ just because you have capabilities. If program did not have suid0
+ yesterday, it probably should not have suid0 today. (Think about
+ booting old kernel, for example).
+
+ Pavel Machek
+

--
I'm pavel@ucw.cz. "In my country we have almost anarchy and I don't care."
Panos Katsaloulis describing me w.r.t. patents me at discuss@linmodems.org

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