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SubjectRe: [patch] new-vm improvement [Re: 2.2.0 Bug summary]
On Sat, 2 Jan 1999, Andrea Arcangeli wrote:

> is the swapout smart weight code. Basing the priority on the number of
> process to try to swapout was really ugly and not smart.

But I done two mistakes in it. Benjamin pointed out after one msec that
there was no need for putting the address on the stack, and looking a
_bit_ more at swap_out_pmd() I noticed that the old code was just updating
swap_address, woops ;).

I noticed the second very more important mistakes running at 8Mbyte
because the trashing memory proggy was segfaulting. The bug was to base
the maximal weight of swap_out() on the total_rss and not on the sum of
the total_vm of all processes. With 8Mbyte all my processes got swapped
out and so swap_out stopped working ;). It's fixed now...

> The second change is done over shrink_mmap(), this will cause
> shrink_mmap() to care very more about aging. We have only one bit and we
> must use it carefully to get not out of cache ;)

This change is pretty buggy too. The only good thing was to not care
about the pgcache min limits before to shrink the _swap_cache_. Now I also
changed pgcache_under_min to don't care about the swapcache size (now the
swap cache is a bit more fast-variable/crazy).

> I also added/removed some PG_referenced. But please, don't trust too much
> the pg_refernced changes since I have not thought about it too much (maybe
> they are not needed?).

Hmm I guess at least the brw_page set_bit was not needed because before to
run such function is been run or a __find_page() or an add_to_...cache().

> Ah and woops, in the last patch I do a mistake and I forget to change
> max_cnt to unsigned long. This should be changed also in your tree, Linus.

Also some count should be moved from int to unsigned long to handle huge
RAM sizes.

> This new patch seems to really rocks here and seems _far_ better than
> anything I tried before! Steve, could try it and feedback? Thanks ;)

Here Steve's feedback:

128MB 8MB
------- -------
Your previous patch: 132 sec 218 sec
This patch : 118 sec 226 sec
Even if `This patch' was pretty buggy (as pointed out above) it was going
sligtly _faster_. I guess the reason for the 8Mbyte slowdown was the
s/rss/total_vm/ thing (but I am not 100% sure).

I fixed the bugs and so I repost the fixed diff against pre4. I also
cleaned up a bit some thing...

Index: linux/include/linux/mm.h
diff -u linux/include/linux/mm.h:1.1.1.3 linux/include/linux/mm.h:1.1.1.1.2.12
--- linux/include/linux/mm.h:1.1.1.3 Sat Jan 2 15:24:18 1999
+++ linux/include/linux/mm.h Sun Jan 3 03:43:52 1999
@@ -118,7 +118,6 @@
unsigned long offset;
struct page *next_hash;
atomic_t count;
- unsigned int unused;
unsigned long flags; /* atomic flags, some possibly updated asynchronously */
struct wait_queue *wait;
struct page **pprev_hash;
@@ -295,8 +294,7 @@

/* filemap.c */
extern void remove_inode_page(struct page *);
-extern unsigned long page_unuse(struct page *);
-extern int shrink_mmap(int, int);
+extern int FASTCALL(shrink_mmap(int, int));
extern void truncate_inode_pages(struct inode *, unsigned long);
extern unsigned long get_cached_page(struct inode *, unsigned long, int);
extern void put_cached_page(unsigned long);
@@ -379,8 +377,8 @@

#define buffer_under_min() ((buffermem >> PAGE_SHIFT) * 100 < \
buffer_mem.min_percent * num_physpages)
-#define pgcache_under_min() (page_cache_size * 100 < \
- page_cache.min_percent * num_physpages)
+#define pgcache_under_min() ((page_cache_size-swapper_inode.i_nrpages)*100\
+ < page_cache.min_percent * num_physpages)

#endif /* __KERNEL__ */

Index: linux/include/linux/pagemap.h
diff -u linux/include/linux/pagemap.h:1.1.1.1 linux/include/linux/pagemap.h:1.1.1.1.2.1
--- linux/include/linux/pagemap.h:1.1.1.1 Fri Nov 20 00:01:16 1998
+++ linux/include/linux/pagemap.h Sat Jan 2 21:40:13 1999
@@ -77,6 +77,7 @@
*page->pprev_hash = page->next_hash;
page->pprev_hash = NULL;
}
+ clear_bit(PG_referenced, &page->flags);
page_cache_size--;
}

Index: linux/mm/filemap.c
diff -u linux/mm/filemap.c:1.1.1.8 linux/mm/filemap.c:1.1.1.1.2.36
--- linux/mm/filemap.c:1.1.1.8 Fri Jan 1 19:12:53 1999
+++ linux/mm/filemap.c Sun Jan 3 03:13:09 1999
@@ -122,13 +126,14 @@
{
static unsigned long clock = 0;
unsigned long limit = num_physpages;
+ unsigned long count;
struct page * page;
- int count;

count = limit >> priority;

page = mem_map + clock;
- do {
+ while (count != 0)
+ {
page++;
clock++;
if (clock >= max_mapnr) {
@@ -167,17 +172,17 @@

/* is it a swap-cache or page-cache page? */
if (page->inode) {
- if (pgcache_under_min())
- continue;
if (PageSwapCache(page)) {
delete_from_swap_cache(page);
return 1;
}
+ if (pgcache_under_min())
+ continue;
remove_inode_page(page);
return 1;
}

- } while (count > 0);
+ }
return 0;
}

Index: linux/mm/swap.c
diff -u linux/mm/swap.c:1.1.1.5 linux/mm/swap.c:1.1.1.1.2.8
--- linux/mm/swap.c:1.1.1.5 Sat Jan 2 15:24:40 1999
+++ linux/mm/swap.c Sat Jan 2 21:40:13 1999
@@ -64,13 +64,13 @@
swapstat_t swapstats = {0};

buffer_mem_t buffer_mem = {
- 2, /* minimum percent buffer */
+ 5, /* minimum percent buffer */
10, /* borrow percent buffer */
60 /* maximum percent buffer */
};

buffer_mem_t page_cache = {
- 2, /* minimum percent page cache */
+ 5, /* minimum percent page cache */
15, /* borrow percent page cache */
75 /* maximum */
};
Index: linux/mm/vmscan.c
diff -u linux/mm/vmscan.c:1.1.1.9 linux/mm/vmscan.c:1.1.1.1.2.59
--- linux/mm/vmscan.c:1.1.1.9 Sat Jan 2 15:46:20 1999
+++ linux/mm/vmscan.c Sun Jan 3 03:43:54 1999
@@ -10,6 +10,12 @@
* Version: $Id: vmscan.c,v 1.5 1998/02/23 22:14:28 sct Exp $
*/

+/*
+ * Revisioned the page freeing algorithm (do_free_user_and_cache), and
+ * developed a smart mechanism to handle the swapout weight.
+ * Copyright (C) 1998 Andrea Arcangeli
+ */
+
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/kernel_stat.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
@@ -163,7 +169,7 @@
* cache. */
if (PageSwapCache(page_map)) {
__free_page(page_map);
- return (atomic_read(&page_map->count) == 0);
+ return 1;
}
add_to_swap_cache(page_map, entry);
/* We checked we were unlocked way up above, and we
@@ -195,7 +201,7 @@
flush_tlb_page(vma, address);
swap_duplicate(entry);
__free_page(page_map);
- return (atomic_read(&page_map->count) == 0);
+ return 1;
}
/*
* A clean page to be discarded? Must be mmap()ed from
@@ -210,9 +216,8 @@
flush_cache_page(vma, address);
pte_clear(page_table);
flush_tlb_page(vma, address);
- entry = (atomic_read(&page_map->count) == 1);
__free_page(page_map);
- return entry;
+ return 1;
}

/*
@@ -230,7 +235,7 @@
*/

static inline int swap_out_pmd(struct task_struct * tsk, struct vm_area_struct * vma,
- pmd_t *dir, unsigned long address, unsigned long end, int gfp_mask)
+ pmd_t *dir, unsigned long address, unsigned long end, int gfp_mask, unsigned long * counter)
{
pte_t * pte;
unsigned long pmd_end;
@@ -251,18 +256,20 @@

do {
int result;
- tsk->swap_address = address + PAGE_SIZE;
result = try_to_swap_out(tsk, vma, address, pte, gfp_mask);
+ address += PAGE_SIZE;
+ tsk->swap_address = address;
if (result)
return result;
- address += PAGE_SIZE;
+ if (!--*counter)
+ return 0;
pte++;
} while (address < end);
return 0;
}

static inline int swap_out_pgd(struct task_struct * tsk, struct vm_area_struct * vma,
- pgd_t *dir, unsigned long address, unsigned long end, int gfp_mask)
+ pgd_t *dir, unsigned long address, unsigned long end, int gfp_mask, unsigned long * counter)
{
pmd_t * pmd;
unsigned long pgd_end;
@@ -282,9 +289,11 @@
end = pgd_end;

do {
- int result = swap_out_pmd(tsk, vma, pmd, address, end, gfp_mask);
+ int result = swap_out_pmd(tsk, vma, pmd, address, end, gfp_mask, counter);
if (result)
return result;
+ if (!*counter)
+ return 0;
address = (address + PMD_SIZE) & PMD_MASK;
pmd++;
} while (address < end);
@@ -292,7 +301,7 @@
}

static int swap_out_vma(struct task_struct * tsk, struct vm_area_struct * vma,
- unsigned long address, int gfp_mask)
+ unsigned long address, int gfp_mask, unsigned long * counter)
{
pgd_t *pgdir;
unsigned long end;
@@ -306,16 +315,19 @@

end = vma->vm_end;
while (address < end) {
- int result = swap_out_pgd(tsk, vma, pgdir, address, end, gfp_mask);
+ int result = swap_out_pgd(tsk, vma, pgdir, address, end, gfp_mask, counter);
if (result)
return result;
+ if (!*counter)
+ return 0;
address = (address + PGDIR_SIZE) & PGDIR_MASK;
pgdir++;
}
return 0;
}

-static int swap_out_process(struct task_struct * p, int gfp_mask)
+static int swap_out_process(struct task_struct * p, int gfp_mask,
+ unsigned long * counter)
{
unsigned long address;
struct vm_area_struct* vma;
@@ -334,9 +346,12 @@
address = vma->vm_start;

for (;;) {
- int result = swap_out_vma(p, vma, address, gfp_mask);
+ int result = swap_out_vma(p, vma, address, gfp_mask,
+ counter);
if (result)
return result;
+ if (!*counter)
+ return 0;
vma = vma->vm_next;
if (!vma)
break;
@@ -350,6 +365,19 @@
return 0;
}

+static unsigned long get_total_vm(void)
+{
+ unsigned long total_vm = 0;
+ struct task_struct * p;
+
+ read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
+ for_each_task(p)
+ total_vm += p->mm->total_vm;
+ read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
+
+ return total_vm;
+}
+
/*
* Select the task with maximal swap_cnt and try to swap out a page.
* N.B. This function returns only 0 or 1. Return values != 1 from
@@ -358,8 +386,11 @@
static int swap_out(unsigned int priority, int gfp_mask)
{
struct task_struct * p, * pbest;
- int counter, assign, max_cnt;
+ int assign;
+ unsigned long counter, max_cnt;

+ counter = get_total_vm() >> priority;
+
/*
* We make one or two passes through the task list, indexed by
* assign = {0, 1}:
@@ -374,20 +405,14 @@
* Think of swap_cnt as a "shadow rss" - it tells us which process
* we want to page out (always try largest first).
*/
- counter = nr_tasks / (priority+1);
- if (counter < 1)
- counter = 1;
- if (counter > nr_tasks)
- counter = nr_tasks;
-
- for (; counter >= 0; counter--) {
+ while (counter > 0) {
assign = 0;
max_cnt = 0;
pbest = NULL;
select:
read_lock(&tasklist_lock);
- p = init_task.next_task;
- for (; p != &init_task; p = p->next_task) {
+ for_each_task(p)
+ {
if (!p->swappable)
continue;
if (p->mm->rss <= 0)
@@ -410,10 +435,11 @@
}

/*
- * Nonzero means we cleared out something, but only "1" means
- * that we actually free'd up a page as a result.
+ * Nonzero means we cleared out something, and "1" means
+ * that we actually moved a page from the process memory
+ * to the swap cache (it's not been freed yet).
*/
- if (swap_out_process(pbest, gfp_mask) == 1)
+ if (swap_out_process(pbest, gfp_mask, &counter))
return 1;
}
out:
@@ -441,42 +467,63 @@
printk ("Starting kswapd v%.*s\n", i, s);
}

-#define free_memory(fn) \
- count++; do { if (!--count) goto done; } while (fn)
+static int do_free_user_and_cache(int priority, int gfp_mask)
+{
+ if (shrink_mmap(priority, gfp_mask))
+ return 1;

-static int kswapd_free_pages(int kswapd_state)
+ if (swap_out(priority, gfp_mask))
+ /*
+ * We done at least some swapping progress so return 1 in
+ * this case. -arca
+ */
+ return 1;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int do_free_page(int * state, int gfp_mask)
{
- unsigned long end_time;
+ int priority = 8;

- /* Always trim SLAB caches when memory gets low. */
- kmem_cache_reap(0);
+ switch (*state) {
+ do {
+ default:
+ if (do_free_user_and_cache(priority, gfp_mask))
+ return 1;
+ *state = 1;
+ case 1:
+ if (shm_swap(priority, gfp_mask))
+ return 1;
+ *state = 0;
+
+ shrink_dcache_memory(priority, gfp_mask);
+ kmem_cache_reap(gfp_mask);
+ } while (--priority >= 0);
+ }
+ return 0;
+}

+static int kswapd_free_pages(int kswapd_state)
+{
/* max one hundreth of a second */
- end_time = jiffies + (HZ-1)/100;
- do {
- int priority = 8;
- int count = pager_daemon.swap_cluster;
+ unsigned long end_time = jiffies + (HZ-1)/100;

- switch (kswapd_state) {
- do {
- default:
- free_memory(shrink_mmap(priority, 0));
- free_memory(swap_out(priority, 0));
- kswapd_state++;
- case 1:
- free_memory(shm_swap(priority, 0));
- shrink_dcache_memory(priority, 0);
- kswapd_state = 0;
- } while (--priority >= 0);
- return kswapd_state;
- }
-done:
- if (nr_free_pages > freepages.high + pager_daemon.swap_cluster)
+ do {
+ do_free_page(&kswapd_state, 0);
+ if (nr_free_pages > freepages.high)
break;
} while (time_before_eq(jiffies,end_time));
+ /* take kswapd_state on the stack to save some byte of memory */
return kswapd_state;
}

+static inline void enable_swap_tick(void)
+{
+ timer_table[SWAP_TIMER].expires = jiffies+(HZ+99)/100;
+ timer_active |= 1<<SWAP_TIMER;
+}
+
/*
* The background pageout daemon.
* Started as a kernel thread from the init process.
@@ -524,6 +571,7 @@
current->state = TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE;
flush_signals(current);
run_task_queue(&tq_disk);
+ enable_swap_tick();
schedule();
swapstats.wakeups++;
state = kswapd_free_pages(state);
@@ -543,35 +591,23 @@
* if we need more memory as part of a swap-out effort we
* will just silently return "success" to tell the page
* allocator to accept the allocation.
- *
- * We want to try to free "count" pages, and we need to
- * cluster them so that we get good swap-out behaviour. See
- * the "free_memory()" macro for details.
*/
int try_to_free_pages(unsigned int gfp_mask, int count)
{
- int retval;
-
+ int retval = 1;
lock_kernel();

- /* Always trim SLAB caches when memory gets low. */
- kmem_cache_reap(gfp_mask);
-
- retval = 1;
if (!(current->flags & PF_MEMALLOC)) {
- int priority;
-
current->flags |= PF_MEMALLOC;
-
- priority = 8;
- do {
- free_memory(shrink_mmap(priority, gfp_mask));
- free_memory(shm_swap(priority, gfp_mask));
- free_memory(swap_out(priority, gfp_mask));
- shrink_dcache_memory(priority, gfp_mask);
- } while (--priority >= 0);
- retval = 0;
-done:
+ while (count--)
+ {
+ static int state = 0;
+ if (!do_free_page(&state, gfp_mask))
+ {
+ retval = 0;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
current->flags &= ~PF_MEMALLOC;
}
unlock_kernel();
@@ -594,7 +630,8 @@
if (priority) {
p->counter = p->priority << priority;
wake_up_process(p);
- }
+ } else
+ enable_swap_tick();
}

/*
@@ -632,9 +669,8 @@
want_wakeup = 3;

kswapd_wakeup(p,want_wakeup);
- }
-
- timer_active |= (1<<SWAP_TIMER);
+ } else
+ enable_swap_tick();
}

/*
@@ -643,7 +679,6 @@

void init_swap_timer(void)
{
- timer_table[SWAP_TIMER].expires = jiffies;
timer_table[SWAP_TIMER].fn = swap_tick;
- timer_active |= (1<<SWAP_TIMER);
+ enable_swap_tick();
}


As usual if you Steve or other will try this I am interested about numbers
;). Thanks.

Andrea Arcangeli


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